In India we have a good number of doctors who are women. When it comes to specialization most of them decide on a career with their family commitments in mind. Women doctors have a tough time balancing the needs of being a wife and mother and also their career.
Under such circumstances, they tend to choose meidcine, dermatology, pulmonlogy, radiology etc, where in the need to be on-call, the need to be in the hospital for long hours or getting stuck in emergencies is relatively less.
In a surgical specialty the doctor has to be prepared/have enough time to spend in the out patients, in patients and in the operation theaters for planned and emergency surgeries. This is more demanding and has an impact on personal and family life. The added hidden stress associated with surgeons being in high pressure situations becomes an addition burden. Very few would not prefer surgery for the physical needs that a busy surgical or an orthopedic surgical practice commands.
There are women in surgery/orthopedics and they are encouraged.There are women surgeons in many branches of surgery like obesity surgery, transplant surgery etc. In England, the royal college of surgeons have a dedicated wing, women in surgery (WinS) to promote women surgeons.