Surname of father not matching in educational documents would not be a major problem if it is just initials in one and the expansion of the initials in other. Some people use the family name intermittently as surname.
The ration card will not be an issue, once you get your own family and make a new ration card, you can change it. Since you are asking about property division, job etc, it would wiser to correct the error in the major certificates of education (12th, graduation, post-graduation) and proof of Identity documents (Aadhaar,PAN etc). What is the status of your passport.
First find out a document that has your father's proper name and surname printed or mentioned. If not he needs to make an affidavit stating his full name (first name and surname) via the Notary, then publish it in two newspapers ( one english, one vernacular). This would give you a legally valid document that would help you to correct your other documents.
For 10th,12th,graduate certificate.
You need to forward a letter stating the service you want, with the supporting documents for correcting your father's surname. This will need to be forwarded to the respective boards (10th and 12th) and the univeristy( for graduation degree). You would need to pay a small fee for this service.
You need to fill in the form and enclose the documents for the change(https://uidai.gov.in/images/aadhaar_enrolment_correction_form_version_2.1.pdf)
The details can be found in this link (https://uidai.gov.in/enrolment-update/aadhaar-enrolment/aadhaar-data-update.html).
a similar form is needed for the corrrection service (https://www.tin-nsdl.com/downloads/pan/download/PAN-CR-Form_NSDL%20e-Gov_01.06.16.pdf)
How to go about and other details are in (https://tin.tin.nsdl.com/pan/correctiondsc.html).
Voter card correction
You need to fill in this form (http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/forms/FORM8.pdf). The last three changes can be done online, or from citizen support centers close to your locality.