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Scientific management was developed and introduced by F. W. Taylor in 1910 and he is known as father of scientific management. Throughout his career, Taylor was concerned with the problem of increasing labour productivity without putting undue strain on workers.
Scientific management means the application of scientific methods of study analysis to the problems of management. It is a systematic and thoughtful approach to the job of management as compared to rule of thumb or trial and error. It is concern with the scientific bent of mind and is more than merely a set of technologies for improving efficiency. In order to execute the principles of scientific management Taylor and his associates developed the following techniques.
1) Scientific Work Study: It involves the measurement and improvement of work. Scientific work study includes following
a. Method Study: This study involves the critical examination of plan layout, product design, material handling and work processes to minimize time, distance and cost involved in the transportation and storage of material.
b. Motion Study: It refers to the study o the movement of an operator or a machine involved in a task with a view to eliminate unworked or useless motions. Motion study helps to find the best method of doing work. Gilbreth identified 17 basic motions involved in every human operations. These are search, select, grasp, transport empty, transport loaded, hold, release load, position, proposition, inspect, assembly, disassemble, use, unavoidable delay, avoidable delay, plan and rest for overcoming fatigue. Symbolically they can be shown as SH, ST, G, TE, TL ,H, RL, P, PP, I, A, DA, U, UD, AD, Pn & R(17 motions)
c. Time Study: It implies the study of time taken to perform each operation of a job in order to find out the proper time that should be taken in doing the job.
d. Fatigue Study: It implies provision of rest hours after a set time interval. During the rest time the worker can recoup his/her energy.
2) Scientific Task Setting: It is the technique of forecasting and viewing ahead every step in a long series of separate operations. It includes following
a. Routing: It implies laying down the route to be followed by each piece of raw material before its conversion into finished product.
b. Scheduling: It refers to time table of operation.
c. Follow-up: It is the last step in scientific planning which refers to checking of work and taking corrective steps to ensure that each piece of work is completed at the right time.