5G is the upgrade to 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks to mobile and internet services which will provide roughly 10Gbps (gigabits per second)/one-millisecond which is higher than 8 to 10Mbps as on the 4G network. It will help to provide connectivity in remote areas whether on land, at sea or in the air. As per the frequency and spectrum, the analog voice was delivered in 1G, a digital voice through CDMA was delivered in 2G, mobile data was delivered in 3G, mobile Internet through Long Term Evolution (LTE) was delivered by 4G and High-speed internet will be provided by 5G Spectrum.
The 5G frequency spectrum is divided into three types i.e. low-band, mid-band and millimeter-wave. Talking about the speed of each type, the low-band would have the same frequency range as that of the current 4G network. The mid-band would provide constant speed in both indoors and outdoors as compared to Low-range spectrum. The millimeter-wave is difficult to reach indoor concerning its coverage but is the fastest spectrum out of the three types. Thus looking at the cost-effective and other parameters, the telcos would be providing the mid-band spectrum.
India is the potential market for the 5G spectrum, the government has to solve regulatory, financial and procedural issues so as not to face any problem or scam as it had earlier with other spectrum. We may expect auction for the 5G spectrum in the second quarter of 2020 i.e. in April to June but only after conducting trials for the 5G spectrum or network. As buying of the spectrum will need huge funds i.e approximately 10,000 crores for 20MHz to 50,000 crores for 100 Mhz rupees as per the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India(TRAI), It may take nearly 5-6 years to reach masses in India. The rolling out of 5G frequency may start in 2022 by the telcos in India as they will slowly increase their range. Telcos like Bharti Airtel and Reliance Jio have started conducted initial 5G tests and handset or model makers like Nokia, Ericsson, Samsung and Huawei are also testing their equipment for the 5G spectrum or frequency.
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