Due to several reasons and development in the automation or auto world, there is a scope of bringing the electric vehicle that will gradually replace the petrol or diesel vehicles in the coming years. The thought or idea of the electric vehicle came in the early 1900s where it was only reserved for top dignitaries as they wanted a quiet, less vibrating and non-polluting ride which helped in discovering the all-electric vehicles (EVs).
The all-electric vehicles (EVs) would replace the internal combustion(IC) engine and many companies are working to improve the EV batteries concerning the price of the EV batteries, Vehicle design, ultra-fast charging, source of energy for recharging, etc. The challenge for the manufacturer is the vehicle sizes and the associated batteries which need to be compacted, durable and achieve high performance. The batteries are essential for all hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs) for energy storage. The normal electric vehicles (EVs) have 12–18kWh, the mid-sized electric vehicles (EVs) have a 22–32kWh and the luxury models electric vehicles (EVs) have a 60–100kWh which provides long-running capacity and good performance.
Types of Energy Storage or electric battery for an electric vehicle are:
i) Lead-Acid Batteries - These types of batteries are economical, safe, established and carry high power and even high-power lead-acid batteries are being developed due to its limitations like poor life span, low specific energy and very weak in a cold climate.
ii) Lithium-Ion Batteries - It is the most widely used batteries in the world due to its high energy per unit mass capacity. It provides high energy efficiency, better performance even at high-temperature, good power capacity as compared to its weight, low self-discharge, and easily recyclable components. The only concern is the high cost of the material but R&D is under progress to reduce its cost and also increase the component life.
iii) Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries - These types are mostly used in computer and medical equipment due to its long life, safety, mishandling tolerant, specific energy and power potential. The only drawback is the high cost along with heat generation and self-discharge which is at the high side.
iv) Ultracapacitors - These are secondary type energy-storage devices that energize and provides power during acceleration and slope climbing as it contains an electrode and an electrolyte which rises capacity as the liquid's surface area increases.
Some of the concerns about using an electric battery or electric vehicle are:
- Long Life - A normal EV batteries can be used for 8 years or 160,000km but temperature plays a vital role. The life span can reduce hot climate and usage patterns.
- Performance - The performance of any EV batteries may differ as it is affected by both heat and cold climate. The heat reduces the life of the battery and cold weather lowers the performance thus EV batteries require climate control or protection.
- Safe Working- As it is very sensitive to temperature, it is always advisable to have a temperature controller or BMS system to keep the EV batteries safe.
- Cost - At one side where it ensures pollution reduction and is eco-friendly, the high cost of EV batteries and its components makes it costly. Unless new development is not made, it can be never be introduced for common people.
- Recharging - It is to note that EV batteries charge to about 80% and discharge to 30% even in new conditions and as it ages, the charging bandwidth reduces which results in fast-aging and increased stress.
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