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  • Category: Computers

    How do the liquid cooling system work in recent high speed computers?


    Want to know how high speed computers are cooled? Searching for details of the cooling system? Scroll down this page for responses from experts to your questions.

    In today's world, many innovations require very high-speed computing devices. Currently, the cooling system in such devices is using the liquid to reject the heat from the system to the atmosphere. Can you describe such a cooling system wherein conventional air is replaced by liquid to enhance the heat transfer rate?
  • Answers

    3 Answers found.
  • The cooling system will use copper cold plates with mesoscale channels. This cooling system will pick up heat from CPU and GPU type heat sources. A liquid to air heat exchangers with flat copper tubes and plain fins to transfer the heat to the air by forced convection is used. The liquid will be a water-based coolant. This coolant will have high thermal performance. To this liquid, some additives will be added to provide burst protection to the cooling system at temperatures down to -40 °C. It will protect critical components. from getting corroded. A reliable compact pump is used to circulate the fluid. The circulation of this fluid will be in the closed-circuit only.

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  • In high speed computers liquid cooling system is used for cooling of the chips which get heated up during their fast working. In liquid cooling system cooling is affected just similar to the cooling of the car engine using the water as a coolant and radiator as sink for the heat. The idea is taken from there only. The heart of the liquid cooling system is water block which is made with a heat-conductive metal like copper and the bottom of this block is joined to the chip to be cooled through a thermal conductive paste so that the heat of the chip is transferred to the block. The block is filled with tubes and channels through which the water circulates from a miniature centrifugal pump mounted nearby. The rate of pumping is selected as per the required cooling. The water blocks can be connected in series also so that the same coolant can move across them. The water used is generally distilled water to avoid corrosion in the metal tubes. In some systems anti-corrosion chemicals are also added.

    Liquid cooling systems are designed to be mounted in the available space inside the computer in such a way that they provide the best results in cooling the chips which generally heat up during working of the high end computers. The layout of the tubes containing coolant is a crucial factor and there should not be any break or kink in them for smooth flow of the coolant. This is a technology which asks for much precision in its parts and their amalgamation with the usual computer elements like mother board and associated circuitry.

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  • Heat, when increases can kill any parts or equipment and thus every equipment, has a provision of cooling it. When we talk about personal PC or computer or Laptop, we know that there are many parts which help to work faster and as the parts or capacity increases, so also the heat generated in the system increases which in-turn can damage the internal parts and even smooth functioning of the system, equipment or the engine. As many of us have used or using a desktop or laptop, we can hear the whirring of a small fan from the CPU or from Laptop which releases the hot air or heat that is generated while processing or working. For a small system or configuration system, a normal fan can cool the system but for high-end hardware or system having a high configuration, liquid cooling or water cooling can be a better solution.

    A liquid-cooling system basic principle of thermodynamics, heat is an energy that can be converted from one form to another, or transferred from one object to another. In the PC system, it works for cooling the components by moving from warmer objects to cooler objects and the cooler object gets warmer whereas the warmer object gets cooler. Liquid cooling is the same as that car's cooling system wherein the water is circulated through the engine whereby the engine warming the water and cooling itself off in the process.

    Q: How Water cooling works?
    A: The common components of a Water cooling system are water blocks (the equivalent of heat sinks), a reservoir or tank, pump, radiator and fan, fittings, coolant-filled tubes and accessories which will be connected for easy functioning and working of the water cool system in a PC or laptop. One can select from a Self-contained or sealed liquid cooler and normal water cooling system.

    Working: The coolant is filled in the reservoir which is connected to the pumping unit. The pump pumps the coolant or fluid which flows through the tubings that are passed through the network wherein the heat needs to be ejected or dissipated from the component. The tubings are usually made from copper or aluminum as they are highly conductive metal and helps in absorbing the heat generated during its working. The water blocks are clamped on top of CPU or chipset or motherboard through narrow running channels all around. The coolant flows through the water blocks or channels absorbing heat which goes to the radiator after exiting from the CPU block carrying the heat absorbed from the components and system. The coolant is pushed through a narrow tube or channel at the radiator wherein air is blown through external fans that cools the coolant and dissipating the heat absorbed and cooling the liquid. The dissipation of heat depends upon the characteristic of the coolant selected or used in the water cooling system. The cool liquid or coolant again flows to the reservoir or tank and the cycle continues.

    Advantage of using Water cooling system in PC or Laptop are:
    i) Silent Operation - Due to huge cooling are in the radiator, one can use fans at very low speeds that in turn are silent or have negligible sound thus providing silent working or operation of the system.

    ii) Increases the lifespan of parts - As liquid cooling provides better cooling of components, the life of each part increases due to less heat generation or accumulation.

    iii) Slim or Sleek design - The liquid cooling system takes less space and provides better cooling which helps the manufactured to bring in a sleek and compact design.

    iv) Great overclocking potential - Every overclock raises the frequency of the chip which in turn generates excess heat but liquid cooling system sufficiently transfers the excess heat away from the overclocked hardware thus keeping it under control and giving you better performance from the hardware.

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