It is a cost-effective technology. Nitrate, Nitrite, Ammonia are toxic materials to the fish and shellfish. These are converted to useful products called a proteinaceous feed. This method is used in aquaculture system. Very limited water exchange is an advantage in this method. The culture of Biofloc will be productive if the culture tanks are exposed to the sun. The cost is less in this system.
The important three requirements are:
2. A carbohydrate source
The first step for this process is to make a tank or pond. These ponds should be lined ponds, concrete ponds or indoor tanks. There should not be any influence of soil over water parameters or Biofloc processes. Outdoor ponds should have lids. So that rainwater will not entre into the tank which will have an influence on alkalinity,
The second step is to arrange the aeration system. A large volume of aeration is required to maintain oxygen levels. This system will see that there will be some movement in the tank and no solids will settle. 6mg of oxygen per hour per litre is the requirement. So one has to plan the aerators that will cater to the need. Generally, 30 HP aerator may be needed for a hectare.
The third step is preseeding. This will help fast development of Biofloc system and the tank will get stabilised. This preseeding material will be available in the market.
The fourth step is the selection of the variety. shrimp and tilapia are very good candidates. They improve feeding efficiency.
The fifth step is to select a carbon source input. carbon sources and feed mixtures which are a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio more than 10 are good. Molasses, cassava, hay, sugarcane or starch are good inputs.
The next step is Biofloc growth. Start aerating after adding the carbohydrates. Then Biofloc should start growing fast. Sunlight is also good for this. If there is no rain you can keep the lids of the tanks open. Growth is to be monitored.
The growth should be monitored by measuring the numbers by taking frequently sample water. Initially, the pond will look green and later on will change to brown.
Aeration system should work continuously and there should be a fall back arrangement if there is a power failure. Regularly water quality should be monitored by measuring dissolved oxygen and Tammonia content, Growth rate is also to be monitored. Once the growth has come you can harvest. Before you go for the next batch the tank should be cleaned properly.
The following are some important benefits of this method:
1, An eco-friendly method
2, Wastewater can be used and hence waste generation is less
3. It gives more density of fishes in the water body
4, Productivity will increase.
5. Less water pollution
You have to submit your proposal for obtaining permission before you go for the process
1. National Fisheries Development Board. You have to send your proposal to the office of this organisation in the area you propose the farming
2. Development of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture,
3. Development of Marine Fisheries and Infrastructure and Post Harvest Operations
4. National Scheme of welfare of fishermen
5. Institutional Arrangments for the fisheries sector in India
6. Monitoring, control and surveillance and other need-based interventions in Fisheries.
7. Strengthing of Database and the geographical information systems in the fisheries sector to start the fish farming business.
The cost depends on the cost of the land where you are proposing to have the process, how much area you propose and the scale at what you want to start.