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  • What are the different types of COVID-19 vaccines available in India and other information about the

    Having a query regarding the various Covid 19 vaccines available in India? Looking out for detailed information about the vaccines? Here, on this Ask Expert page find suggestions for your queries here.

    Many of them have been vaccinated and others are waiting for their appoints for the COVID-19 vaccines but it is also true that many of us have too many questions coming up in their mind about the vaccine and its effectiveness. Here, I would like our experts to throw more light on the topic and clear the doubts like:
    a) What are the different types of COVID-19(Brand Name) vaccines available in India with their manufacturer and others undergoing large-scale (Phase 3) clinical trials?
    b) Who all can get a Vaccination, How many shots one will require, and when will a person get full immunity after fully vacinated?
    c) What do you mean by Viral vector vaccines, Genetic [Messenger RNA (mRNA)] vaccines, Inactivated vaccines, Attenuated vaccines, and Protein vaccines for COVID-19?
    d) What are the precautionary measures to be taken by a person before and after vaccination?
    e) What are the side effects or cases registered after vaccination and what are its reason?
    f) What is the price of each vaccine if taken from private hospitals or should one wait to get an appointment in government hospitals?
    g) Any other additional information that may help everyone about the COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination?
  • Answers

    3 Answers found.
  • India is using two vaccines that is Covishield and Covaxin and so far about 10 crore people have been vaccinated. There are other vaccines in use in other countries and many vaccines under trial and slowly entering the medical system in various countries. One thing we all must understand that these vaccines are being developed much hurriedly and that is why there may not be any exhaustive clinical testing for them and their effectiveness also may not be 100% but this is the only recourse at present and the world Govt are going ahead with these with full throttle to save the humans from this pandemic. No doubt, in due course of time better vaccines will be there. Recently, Govt of India has given permission for the third vaccine also that is 'Sputnik V' from Russian sources. This will be manufactured by Dr Reddy's lab in India and will be available in 3-4 months as is being hoped. Let us now go in details as per the sequence of questions in the above query -
    a) Presently two vaccines are available in India that is Covishield and Covaxin.
    Covishield is from the Oxford-AstraZeneca source and this vaccine is being manufactured locally by the Serum Institute of India under permission and collaboration with AstraZeneca. Oxford-AstraZeneca is the largest vaccine manufacturer in the world right now manufacturing a staggering 60 million doses a month. Covishield is made from a weakened version of a common cold virus (known as an adenovirus) from chimpanzees. It prompts the immune system to start making antibodies to fight and stop the coronavirus infection. It is given in two doses with a gap of 6-8 weeks. It is claimed to have 70% effectiveness. So there are 70% chances that the person who has taken it would not get infection. It is not 100% and one should note that point because even after taking this vaccine one has to take precautions. It only increases your chance of not getting the infection which is a big thing at this point of time but with more research and development we may get a vaccine in future which claims for 100% protection.
    Let us now come to Covaxin. It is an inactivated vaccine as it is made up of killed coronaviruses. Bharat Biotech, an Indian company, having 24 year experience in vaccine making with an impressive track record of making 16 other vaccines and exporting to 123 countries is manufacturing it. This vaccine is also given in 2 doses with a gap of 4 weeks between them. It is claimed to have efficacy rate of 81% based on phase 3 trial data. Bharat Biotech has already manufactured a good number of Covaxin and has plans to manufacture 700 million doses by the year end (December 2021).
    b) When sufficient vaccines are available everyone will have to go through it. There is a doubt whether children should be given this or not and that will be clear soon after the results of more tests going around clinically at present by various laboratories around the world are obtained. Initially, Govt gave it to the people having age above 60 but now they are giving to all above 45 years and slowly more will be covered in this. Other things pertaining to this query are covered above in (a).
    c) These are the different sources from which the vaccine is derived. Those which are being used in different parts of the globe can be categorised under those sources. Let me give the details here. Oxfor-AstraZeneca (Covishield), Sputnik, and Johnson & Johnson belong to Viral Vector category, Pfizer, and Moderna belong to RNA category, Bharat Biotech (Covaxin), Sinofarm, and Sinovac belong to the category of inactivated virus, and finally Novavax belongs to the category called as Protein based.
    d) If a person is suffering from some serious ailments he should consult the doctor before going for these vaccines. Another thing is that after taking the vaccine one should not exert much in the following days. Precautions are to be taken as usual. The vaccine will start giving protection only after about 40-45 days after the first dose in case of Covaxin and 55-60 days after the first dose in case of Covishield, if second dose is taken as scheduled in both the cases.
    e) Though it is clinically and scientifically not established but there are some suspected side effects of Covishield related to the blood clotting as reported from countries like US and Brazil but the percentage is too low (may be 1 out of 100000 or even less) and it is difficult to establish that. Once that is confirmed then only something concrete can be told about that. Many people will get fever, body ache and things like that after taking that and this is the usual thing and nothing to be worried but if something sustains further for more time then one has to consult the doctor. It is usual to get some inconvenience after a vaccine for a few days. Doctors are generally prescribing some anti-analgesics for that like paracetamol.
    f) In Govt hospitals these are being given free and outside in the private hospitals the Govt has capped their price at Rs 250.

    Knowledge is power.

  • Presently in India, two vaccines are in use. They are Covishield and Covaxin. Recently the central government has permitted the third vaccine that is Sputnik V. The details of these vaccines are as follows.
    1. Sputnik V: This vaccine is developed by Moscow's Gamaleya Institute. A cold-type virus is used in making the vaccine after making the virus harmless, as a carrier to deliver a small fragment of the coronavirus to the body. After this vaccine enters the body, it will start developing antibodies useful to fight Corona. This vaccine is to be stored between 2 to8 degrees centigrade. This will make transportation and storage of the vaccine hassle-free. In this vaccine, the second dose is different from the first dose. Because of this, the body immune system will become more effective than in the case of the same vaccine in two doses. The vaccine is approved in 60 countries and some countries, it is already in use. This will be available in India in the next two or three months. Hyderabad based Dr Reddy's are in the process of making this vaccine in India.
    2. Covaxin: In this vaccine killed coronaviruses is used after making it safe to inject into the body. A Vaccine making company based in Hyderabad. Bharat Biotech is the inventor of this vaccine. Immune cells in our body will recognise the dead virus and make the immune system make antibodies that will kill the coronavirus. Two doses are to be administered with a gap of 30 days. This vaccine can be stored and transported at a temperature between 2 to 8 degrees centigrade. 700 million doses are supposed to be available in the market by this year-end.
    3. Covishield: A weakened version of a common cold virus is used in making this vaccine. Pune based Serum Institute of India is making this vaccine developed by the Oxford-AstraZeneca. International clinical trials of this vaccine showed an effectiveness of 90%. The gap between the two doses should be 60 days. Then the effectiveness will be much higher, it is claimed.

    Some other vaccines are in the process at various stages. Their usage is not at started. They are
    1.ZyCov-Di. It is being developed by Ahmedabad-based Zydus-Cadila company.
    2. Hyderabad-based Biological E to produce the vaccine developed by US firm Johnson & Johnson

    There are some more but still, they are in the initial stages only.

    When a person is sick, he should not go for vaccination. The persons having other health problems should contact their doctor and take his suggestion before going for vaccination. After getting vaccinated some persons may have a slight fever, body pains and headache etc. Dolo 650 is the medicine to be used in any of the above symptoms are there. No other medicine should be used unless otherwise, a qualified doctor recommends. More complications will develop if any medicine is used without the approval of a qualified doctor. This fever and weakness may be there for 2 or 3 days.
    As far as price is concerned, it is free if you go to a government hospital for vaccination. If you go to a private health centre they will charge you Rs.250/- per dose. You have to sit in the hospital for a minimum of 30 minutes after having the vaccine. Any unwanted developments should be informed to the doctor within that 30 minutes.
    No Vaccine is 100% effective. So even after vaccination also we should not go away from following the precautions so that we will not become a victim of this virus.

    always confident

  • Two vaccines have been formulated in India against the coronavirus - Covaxine and covishield. India has also given these two vaccines to more than 50 countries of the world. This means that both these vaccines have met certain safety and efficacy criteria to obtain the necessary emergency use authorization. Both vaccines have been reported to be safe for use, although reactions have been reported in some cases. It is therefore important that we be aware of certain side effects. Covaxin and covishield are both domestic and traditional vaccines, developed using long-lived mechanisms. Therefore, they can be said to be safer than other modern vaccines, with even side-effects being less than the usual risks. It has also been proved in clinical research that the efficacy rate of Indian vaccines is good at this time. Both vaccines act to increase the count of antibodies in the body, which will alert the body to a protective defense when a future virus attack is suspected. The second phase of the Kovid-19 vaccination drive has started in March. After the healthcare workers, the country's senior citizens and those who are 45 or older and suffering from serious illness are getting vaccinated. Kovishield and covaxine supplements are being administered to all people in India. However, there are side effects and myths associated with this, due to which people are hesitating to take the vaccine.

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