# Evolution of the computer

Recently we shifted our house and I found all my computer notes so thought of sharing this evolution of computer in ISC

The word computer is derived from the word "compute" which means to "calculate".
· If we look back at the history of computers it can be traced back to 3000 B. C. The stone age man used small round stones(pebbles) for counting cattle.
· Later, a device called Abacus was developed by the Chinese. This is supposed to be the first mechanical computing device.
· In 1617, john Napier a Scottish mathematician developed a device which is called Napier's bones. With the help of this device, multiplication and addition were possible.
· In 1642, Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician invented the first mechanical calculator.
· In 1673 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, a german invented the Leibniz calculator which was used for addition, substraction and multiplication.
· A French weaver's son named Joseph Marie Jacquard made the next significant contribution in 1804. After observing his father making different weaving patterns on the loom, he thought of storing these patterns for future use. So he developed a plate with multiple holes to control the weaving patterns, not knowing that one day his idea of storing the weaving patterns would be used to store data and would be called the Punch Card.
· A Punched card is a thin rectangular card divide into 80 columns and 12 rows in which the various characters could be represented by punching holes in the different rows and columns. In one card it is possible to store 80 characters of data.
· Around 1822, Charles Babbage a professor of mathematics at the Cambridge University devised an automatic calculating machine, Difference Engine.
· The next significant invention came from Dr. Herman Hollerith, an American. Hollerith built a computer to analyze the Census data of the united States of America in 1980. This computer was elctro – mechanical and was named the census machine or Hollerith statistical Tabulator. Using this machine Hollerith announced the results of the census in 2 ½ years as compared to 7 ½ years when the processing was done manually. Herman Hollerith founded a company named " The Computing Tabulating Recording Company" which today is IBM corporation.
· Howard Aiken, built the first fully electro mechanical computer named MARK – 1.
· In 1945, a significant contribution was made by John Von Neumann, a Frenchman working for IBM. He designed the basic structure of a computer to include the capacity to:
1) Perform Logical functions
2) Perform Repetitive functions.
3) Store data and instructions (Memory)
In 1945, the fully electronic computer named ENIAC was built by Presper Eckert and John W Mauchly. ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator.