In the initial stages of education, rote learning is a necessity. The children have to get by heart certain things like mathematical tables, poems etc. This will help in increasing the concentration levels. The mathematical functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are taught in many practical ways. The rote learning of mathematical tables helps the students to do all these tasks easily. The importance of rote learning should not be neglected.
The teaching at later stages changes by introducing concepts, explaining the concept with examples, reinforcing the concept by working out some problems based on the concept introduced and finally arriving at a conclusion. This is how the teachers develop the lesson to make the student understand the subject under discussion. Most of the teaching is by talk and chalk. These days many gadgets are being used to teach the abstract concepts where the student is required to visualize in his mind which is difficult. I am not aware of the recent trends in teaching but I hope they in keeping with the time.
The three important aspects of teaching are "why? what? and how?" The teacher should be in a position to explain to the students why the particular topic is to be learnt, What is to be learned and how it can be applied in a real-life situation. Many teachers fail to do this. The reason being they themselves are not aware of it. This aspect is to be corrected for effective learning to take place. The teachers should be given adequate training and also be involved with the field practices to know the practical applications.
In Technical Education, for that matter in almost all the disciplines, there is a project work to be done at the end of the study. A real-life problem is chosen by the students with the help of the teachers. The problem selected in such a way that the all the knowledge acquired during the period of study is assimilated to complete the project. This gives the student the opportunity and confidence to correlate the knowledge in problem-solving.
The laboratories and the equipment become obsolete over a period of time with new equipment developed. It is not easy to modernize the laboratories all the time. The best solution is to establish regional laboratories and modernize them from time to time. The students can use the regional laboratories and keep themselves abreast with new equipment and their operation.
In the examination system, it is very difficult to test the student in all aspects. The examination boards are adopting newer systems of testing a student by class tests, end examinations. The question papers are set in such a manner that they test the students in knowledge, comprehension, and application. Practical examinations and project work test their ability to conduct tests, make observations and find the results using their theoretical knowledge.
Innovation and research can be done in institutions of higher learning but not in schools or colleges. Those students who are interested in research work can take admission in such institutes and do their research work. In our country, a degree is acquired mostly for obtaining a job and make a living out of it. This basic necessity should not be forgotten when we talk about educational standards.
Teaching-learning is a two-way process. There should be effective teaching and simultaneously learning should take place. One without the other is of no use.
" Be Good and Do Good "