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  • Category: Reward Programs

    Classroom Lecture contest for postgraduate courses

    It is time to salute the teachers of our country whose hard work and dedication have made us do what we do for our career today. So let us give a tribute to the teachers by writing classroom lectures. Here you are requested to submit a classroom lecture teaching a topic in a subject of any stream which is taught in any postgraduate class in any department of the universities (but not a vocational course).

    1: You have to write a classroom lecture in English on any master's subject or topic taught, for example, MSc. computer science, MA in history, etc., as a response in this thread. New members can go through some of the previous classroom lecture contests here and here to get some guidance on how to write such lectures.

    2. Please give the topic or subject to which you are referring to at the beginning of the response.

    3. No minimum or maximum words are set for this contest, just don't make the lecture too concise or too lengthy.

    4. Please follow the forum posting guidelines and don't include any sms text or slang language in the lectures. Please also don't make any controversial comments in the lecture.

    5. It is mandatory to provide at least one internal link to ISC courses in the lecture. For example, if the lecture is for the course of M.Sc. Agriculture, then there should be one link to the M.Sc. Agriculture course on ISC courses page.

    Last date to submit entries: 10th September.

    The number of prizes will depend on the number of entries.
    Two first prizes: 125cc.
    One second prize: 100cc.
    One third prize: 75 cc.
  • #709523
    A Lesson to M.Sc. Chemistry students
    Subject: Environmental chemistry.
    Chapter: Air Pollution

    Good Morning boys and girls,

    We have already discussed pollution in general and we all understood the severity of the problem at present the world is facing because of this pollution. As students of M.Sc Chemistry you all know the ill effects of various chemicals and how they are affecting the environment.

    Today let us start our discussion on Air pollution.

    What is air pollution? Can anybody help me?

    Student A: Releasing pollutants into the air is called air pollution

    Student B: Releasing hazardous pollutants into the air is called air pollution.

    Prof.: Good, both of you are correct.
    But to be more precise one can define air pollution as a change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristic of air that causes adverse effects on humans and other organisms. Because of this, a change in the natural environment and ecosystem is taking place.

    The materials which are polluting the air may be gases or liquids or solids and they are called pollutants. There are natural as well as synthetic pollutants. Again, these pollutants are divided into two types. Primary pollutants and secondary pollutants. Primary pollutants are the materials directly released from a chemical process. Ash from a coal-fired boiler. the carbon monoxide gas from car exhaust and sulphur gases that are released from chemical factories are some examples for these primary pollutants. Secondary pollutants will be formed in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. Students are you there with me. Can anybody tell me an example for secondary pollutants?

    Student B: Acid that is getting formed in the atmosphere due to the reaction between water vapour and sulphur dioxide in the presence of NOx gases.

    Prof: Very good.
    Now let me tell some important primary and secondary pollutants.
    Primary Pollutants include:
    1.Sulphur oxides (SOx): SO2 is one hazardous pollutant which will be released into the atmosphere by volcanoes. It is will be released from many chemical factories also. The petroleum products we use like petrol and coal that is used mainly in industries will have sulphur. On combustion, this will generate sulphur dioxide. This sulphur dioxide will get oxidised to acid in the presence of NOx gases.
    2. Nitrogen oxides (NOx): High-temperature combustion will make the formation of nitrogen dioxide.
    3.Carbon monoxide: Incomplete combustion of fuels (natural gas, coal or wood) will release this gas. Vehicular exhaust is another important source of carbon monoxide.

    Secondary pollutants include:
    1.Ground-level ozone (O3). This will form when NOx gases get reacted with Volatile Organic compounds that are present in the polluted air (VOCs). If this ozone goes to a very high concentration will become a pollutant
    2. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) –This will also from when NOx gases and VOCs react. It is a very hazardous pollutant and may affect our respiratory system and nervous system.

    Students I hope you are able to understand and in case of any doubt you can contact me in my room and I will guide you. I suggest you go through the textbooks and list some more examples for Primary and secondary pollutants so that in the next class we can have some more discussion on those examples.
    Have a good day.

    always confident

  • #709572
    A Lecture to M.Sc. Physics students
    Subject: Electromagnetic Radiation
    Chapter: Wave-particle duality

    Dear Students,
    You might had studied in your earlier classes about the basic electromagnetic radiation and today we would like to discuss and learn about the wave-particle duality to explain the behaviour of electromagnetic radiation in different conditions especially when they interact with other materials. Before I start today's matter let us just revise our understanding about the electromagnetic radiation. As you all know as per the classical understanding of the electromagnetic radiation it is a type of wave having oscillating electrical and magnetic field and it travels from one place to another with the speed of light. In fact light is also a part of this electromagnetic radiation. The energy coming from Sun to Earth is also an electromagnetic radiation. The spectrum of electromagnetic waves is very wide containing radio waves, microwaves, infrared, light (visible to human eye), ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays. These different types are identified by their wavelength and frequencies. For example Radio waves are high wavelength-low frequency waves while Gamma rays are low wavelength-high frequency waves. Their speed 'c' is same and is related to the wavelength 'w' and frequency 'f' by the well known formula -
    c=fw .......................... (1)
    We must also recollect that c is the speed of these waves in vacuum and in any medium it would be slightly reduced as per the properties of that medium.

    I think with that background now we can go ahead and try to understand the principles of wave-particle duality. In the fag end of 19th century scientists were not able to explain the black body radiations and then Max Planck in the year 1900, developed a theory of black body radiation and introduced an idea of energy being emitted by the black body in discreet packets called quanta. Later in 1905 Einstein supported it and suggested light as comprising of these quanta and considered them as real particles. These studies coincided with the finding of particles like electron and proton in an atom and soon this light quanta was named as photon. This concept of photon made a phenomenal change in our outlook about the electromagnetic radiation as so far that was considered only as a wave.

    The energy of photon is proportional to its frequency and to honour the scientist Max Planck the constant of proportionality 'h' was called as Planck's constant. The energy 'E' of the photon having a frequency 'f' is given by -
    E=hf ............................ (2)
    Combining equation (1) and (2) we get -
    E=hf=hc/w ................... (3)
    This is known as Planck–Einstein equation. These concepts were actually the building blocks for the quantum Physics which is now being taught in M.Sc. Physics courses.

    The concept of photon helped immensely in explaining the photoelectric effect, in which light falling on a metal surface ejected electrons from it, causing an electric current to flow. It was a very interesting observation at that time that energy of individual ejected electrons was proportional to the frequency, rather than the intensity of the falling light. Below a certain frequency this ejection of electron did not take place. This gave a big boost to the photon theory. This theory also helped in understanding the phenomenon of fluorescence, phosphorescence etc which are the result of photon-electron interactions where electrons excited by an incoming photons just go to higher energy levels and come back giving out other photons.

    Once the photon theory got established then the electromagnetic radiation was considered as having a dual nature - wave as well as particle. This was known as the wave-particle duality.

    So, friends, with this we close the class today and in our next class we would do some numerical exercises based on these concepts that we learned today. Meanwhile go through this lesson once again today in your house and if you have any doubts we would try to resolve them in our next class. Have a good day.

    Knowledge is power.

  • #709670
    A Lesson to Agriculture students
    Subject: Technology in agriculture
    Chapter: Green revolution

    Professor - Hello students, Today we are going to all discuss about the great invention of agriculture sector, student as you all want to form your career in M.Sc Agriculture in future, so this subject becomes important for you -

    The revolution resulted in significant progress within the agricultural sector of the country. As a results of the qualitative improvement in agricultural inputs, not only agricultural production but commercial agriculture was promoted within the country, there was a change within the attitude of farmers and also the rise in agricultural surplus.

    As a results of the revolution, there has been a considerable increase within the production and total productivity per hectare against crops like wheat, sugarcane, maize and millet. The achievements of the revolution may be seen as technical and institutional changes in agriculture and improvement in production as follows - technical and institutional reforms in agriculture and use of chemical fertilizers.

    The revolution was also named the Evergreen Revolution.

    Student A - Sir, who used the term 'Evergreen Revolution' to extend agricultural production in India?

    Professor - M. S. Swaminathan used the term 'Evergreen Revolution' to spotlight the trail of growth in production and productivity. The credit for starting the revolution goes to laureate Professor Norman Ernest Borlaug. Norman Ernest Borlaug was an American agronomist who won the Nobel prize, considered the daddy of the revolution. Borlaug is one in every of the five folks that were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom and therefore the Congressional prize

    Student B - Which of the subsequent crops has increased in production after Green Revolution?

    Professor - Students, the revolution was first introduced in India as a 'new agricultural strategy' during the Kharif season and was named the High Yielding Variety Program (HYVP). This program was introduced as a package mainly because the program relied on regular and adequate irrigation, fertilizers, seeds of high yielding varieties, pesticides and therefore the state of Punjab because the starting site in India for the revolution. was chosen. Expansion of farming areas; Dual crop of existing farmland; and therefore the use of HYV seeds within the revolution method has three basic elements.

    As a result of the Green Revolution, necessary infrastructure for the development of agriculture, such as roads for transport facilities, irrigation by tube wells, power supply in rural areas, storage centers and grain markets began to develop. The provision of Minimum Support Price- MSP and other subsidy services for various crops was also started at this time, With this incentive price given to the farmers, they were able to adopt new agricultural technology.

    Students, today we learned how much impact the Green Revolution has had on the agricultural sector, it was an important revolution with which the lecture is completed today.

    Have a great day to all of you.

    All students - Thank you sir.

  • #709695
    A Lesson to Psychology students
    Subject: Behavioural Psychology
    Chapter: Addiction

    Today we will be discussing about addiction and measures to combat it. When I was doing my M. A. Psychology course, then our professor taught us this in a very interesting way and I would today try to create same aura of learning amid you.

    Being students of Psychology you very well know that in Psychology subject we study a lot about the behaviour of the people in different situations and circumstances. Now, addiction is one such thing that affects our behaviour significantly. Before going ahead let us understand what addiction is. It is defined as a psychological and physical inability to stop consuming a chemical, drug, activity, or substance, even though it is causing psychological and physical harm to the individual. Now tell me if something is harming you, then would you do it?

    Some students say - No, Madam.

    So, let us try to understand that why even after knowing, we resort to these evils day and night and spoil our lives knowingly. It is now very clear that addiction or dependence on something regularly in our lives is a dreadful condition and it has to be somehow corrected using the medical or psychological therapies. Many people take drugs for momentary pleasures and when they become addicted to it then there is no way back and some of them even lose their jobs, get their reputation in society degraded, get cut off from their families, resort to suicidal tendencies, and things like that. Addicted people would always be dwelling in negative territories in their lives.

    Now I am coming to the ways of treating and dealing with addiction. Addiction is not to be taken lightly. It has to be taken up as a disease to be cured and the person suffering from it is actually a serious patient. Psychologists and addiction experts have devised many therapies to tackle and deal with these sort of problems and try to cure the person of this dreadful disease. Some of these are -

    1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) - It is based in identifying the triggers that cause for the craving for a particular drug or alcohol or any such addictive material. The person is to be taught as how to identify those triggers and then avoid or manage them with other activities.

    2. Motivation based therapy - This is more of a motivational method in which a large number of sittings with the person are to be made by the therapist and slowly inculcate in his mind that there are other good ways also to live in this world and addiction is not the normal way of life. This therapy works but requires a long term management.

    3. Contingency management of addiction - This is a slightly different approach in which the therapist or the counsellor provides incentive to the person for staying off his or her addictions. In this method the incentives and rewards should be designed based on the expectations of that person otherwise he would not get inclined to these temptations. This is a difficult method and takes time but works successfully in many cases.

    Friends, now tell me if you have to apply these methods to a patient which one you would prefer?

    Some student say first one. Some whisper the second. Some others say it is the third one that they would go for.

    Ok, then. Please remember that whichever method we use for correcting the menace of addiction in that person we have to use it fully and effectively. These methods work and an expert psychologist would use them fully for the purpose.

    With this we end the today's schedule and day after tomorrow we would again meet for the next chapter in behavioural Psychology. Good day.

    Students - Thank you Madam, good day.

    Thoughts exchanged is knowledge gained.

  • #709697
    A lesson to MA (History) students
    Subject: World History- World War II
    Topic: Adolf Hitler.

    Hi All, Good Morning.
    Let us hope to have a good day today. Hope you all are prepared for a very interesting session. Yesterday, we finished off with World War I. And today, let us turn another page of World History to see World War II that was worse than World War I.

    We know that the First World war was triggered by Austria-Hungary, and the war was mainly between the Central Powers ( Austria-Hungary, German, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire ) and Allied Powers ( Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Japan and the US). Finally, the Allied powers claimed victory and the German had the defeat. That was the end of World war I that was also known as the Great war.

    Okay Students, Before we talk of war, let us ensure that we are free from the Corona attack. Let us not give any freedom for Corona to move freely in this room, but give freedom to your masks and avoid any suffocation. Let us breathe properly. Use your mask only when essentially required.

    Alright, Now, Do you know who triggered World War II and the nations participated in World War II?

    (Some students said Britain, some said Austria, some said Russia)

    My dear students, It was Germany that initiated World War II under the able leadership of Hitler, Adolf Hitler. Before we get into the war, let us first know about this great guy Hitler and we will move on to the war scenery tomorrow. I will talk about the great Hitler today.

    Who was Hitler? What was his family background? How he rose to power? Was Hitler from a Royal family? Was Hitler from a Military family? Was he rich?

    The simple answer is – Hitler was from an ordinary family. His father was a civil servant. His grandfather was a cottager, a farmer. Hitler's mother was a Catholic woman, a house maker. Hitler's mother was his fathers' third wife. Yet Hitler was against Christianity.

    You can stop me if you have any doubts, Okay.

    Hitler was born in Austria on 20th April 1889 and lived only for 56 years. He died in the year 1945 when world war II ended. He was married just a day before his death. He died by committing suicide. He shot himself with his own revolver. Because he never wanted to be captured by his enemies.

    Let us know - How was Hitler? A smart rowdy boy, a juvenile ringleader, a good singer and he was good at drawing and painting. He was not very good at studies, and he failed in all his examinations. This proves that anyone who doesn't make a pass in the examination also can become a great leader of a nation. (All students laughs)

    Hitler's father wanted his son to be a civil servant like him. But Hitler never wanted to be. He wanted to be someone high in the government. Once he saw the collections of books his father had. He found some interesting war books. He read them and was inspired to fight wars.

    Unfortunately or fortunately when he was 14, his father died in the year 1904. His mother fell ill and died in the year 1907. Hitler suffered as an orphan without any money. He had difficult days.

    Finally, in 1909, he left for Vienna and joined the academy of arts. He could not pass in the examination. So, he wanted to join the Armed forces, but he did not like the Austrian Army. In 1914 he joined the Bavarian Army. There he was a runner, a risky post that involved carrying of messages from one position to the other. He performed well. He was commended and received a prestigious award 'Iron Cross". Later he was promoted to Gefreiter( a Rank equivalent to Lance Naik in our Army).

    In 1916, during the world war, he received a bullet injury and was hospitalized. On recovery, he joined the war front.

    When World War I ended and German surrendered to the Allied power, Hitler was shocked. He decides to enter into politics.

    Hitler's next chapter begins now. (Students, is it interesting to hear Hitler's story? All say – Super sir)
    A student: Sir, It is said that Hitler killed many million Jews. Why?

    Good question. This question needs a detailed explanation. I shall explain it at the end of this session.

    Mr. Hitler joins politics. He participates in a programme for propaganda speakers. He performs well. He joins a small political party called 'German Working Party". He becomes a member. His membership number was 555. Students, remember the value of 555. Keep 555 in your memory, not the cigarette brand 555. I think the cigarette brand is named after Hitler's membership number.

    After two years, Hitler becomes the party leader and names it as National Socialist German Working Party which is also known as the Nazi party.

    In 1923, he attempts a coup against the German government and fails. He was imprisoned for 5 years but gets released after nine months.

    In 1933, he is elected to the German government. Immediately after assuming power, he brings an end to freedom of speech and puts all his political opponents into jail or killed them.

    Hitler spreads extreme nationalism which is liked by the media and the people. Thus he makes Germany as a Nazi state. He suppressed all the political parties and never allowed them to raise. He becomes the Chancellor of Germany, and also the Commander-in-Chief of the German armed forces.

    This is what Hitler, I said it in a brief. I hope you all can visualize Hitler and understand who Hitler was!

    Let us see how Adolf Hitler led the Second World War in 1939.

    (An office assistant from the Vice-Chancellor's office comes to the professor and says, " Sir, VC want to see you immediately. Professor says, "Okay, Coming.")

    Students, There is an urgent call for me from the VC, we will continue tomorrow. Stay safe. Maintain social distance. Follow the COVID guidelines sincerely and seriously. Bye.

    All Students: Bye sir, we want to see the war tomorrow.

    No life without Sun

  • #709730
    [Response removed by Admin. Read forum policies.]

  • #709746
    A lecture to M.Sc Food and Nutrition Course students
    Subject: Principles of food science
    Chapter: Browning reactions in food

    Lecturer: Good morning class, let us begin with our favourite subject in food and nutrition course, and that is principles of food science which is a vast and an interesting one. I am sure you all agree as I have seen none of you yawning in my class.

    Students: Yes, Mam, it is a fascinating subject.

    Lecturer: It is interesting as you get to learn how laws of physics, chemistry and microbiology get applied to the food system. In this subject, today, I will be covering a significant chapter, and that is browning reactions in food.

    Food turns brown when the chemical reactions occur within. It is known as browning reactions in food. Two types of browning take place. One is enzymatic, and the other one is non-enzymatic.

    Student: Excuse me, Mam. What is the significance of food browning?

    Lecturer: Why are we dealing with the browning topic is because it has a very significant role to play in the food industry. It is essential to control chemical reactions that result in browning. The purpose is to extend the shelf life of food. Since someday you all will be working and contributing to the food industry in some way or the other, you should be familiar with the topic.

    Okay, so let me tell you how it affects the food industry. Every year, we witness a loss of productivity due to enzymatic browning. All the produce or food does not reach the customers due to the series of chemical reactions that take place and change its taste, appearance and even nutritional value.

    Now, let us deal with both the types of browning separately. First one is enzymatic browning or oxidation of food. The chemical reaction is initiated when polyphenol oxidase oxidizes phenols into quinines which in turn through various reactions get converted into brown pigments that settle on the food surface. You might have seen the formation of brown spots on the surface of fruits and vegetables such as bananas, apples and potatoes.

    Student: What is the most significant factor that influences the inhibition of enzymatic browning?

    Lecturer: I am glad you asked the question. So, let me tell you that the number of polyphenol oxidases in the active form that is present in the food will determine the rate of browning. Thus, the scientists try to inhibit the activity of these active polyphenol oxidase molecules which, in turn, will hinder the browning of food and extend its shelf life.

    Student: Is browning always harmful?

    Lecturer: Of course not. Browning that decreases the shelf life of food is harmful. Enzymatic browning that does not cause any harm to shelf life is a useful one. Let me give you some examples. You all must have seen the brown colour that forms on tea, coffee and cocoa beans. Another example is the raisins. Not only, enzymatic browning gives these foods beautiful brown colour but also provides good taste.

    Now, let us come on the topic non-enzymatic browning. In this process, on the surface of food, brown pigmentation develops. However, there is no enzyme activity. I am sure many of you have tasted caramel custards and know-how a caramel sugar tastes. Caramelization process is a perfect example of non-enzymatic browning. In this process, pyrolysis of sugar will add a unique caramel flavour to the food.

    A series of chemical reactions take place between amino acids and reducing sugars. It is known as the Maillard reaction which comes under non-enzymatic browning. The foods achieve a brown colour, but there are no enzymes involved. Bread, cookies, meats all are examples of Maillard reaction. Amine group of amino acids react with reducing sugar in the presence of heat. Consequently, food gets a unique flavour and odour. The type of artificial flavour is dependent on amino acid.

    There is a difference between caramelization and Maillard reaction. Caramelization process requires heat. However, Maillard reaction may or may not need heat.

    I am sure all of you have understood the two types of browning reactions that take place in foods and why is it of significance in the food industry. I would like you all to come up with examples of all such foods in which browning occurs due to a combination of caramelization and Maillard reaction. It is homework for all of you. I will be asking you about it in my next class.

    Students: Thank you, Mam.

  • #709753
    Lecture to M.Sc. Botany

    Chapter: Ecology

    Topic: Ecological Interactions

    Good afternoon dear students,

    As you know we are studying ecology and you have already learnt the detail about the species. Today we are going to study the last topic of this chapter and the topic is ecological interactions. This topic is very important for the examination points of view for the students of M.Sc. Botany. It is not an easy topic to explain hence I will use question answer method to make it easy for you.

    Professor: Do you know the meaning of Interaction?

    Student 1: Yes sir, it means interrelation.

    Professor: Good, as you know there are a lot of species found in the world. An organism cannot survive alone. All the living being interact with each other this process is called ecological interaction. The interaction may be interspecific or intraspecific. Do you know the meaning of interspecific and intraspecific?

    Student 2: No, sir. What are interspecific and intraspecific interactions?

    Professor: When the interaction takes place between the two organisms of the same species then it is called intraspecific interaction and when the interaction takes place between the organisms of two different species then it is called interspecific interaction. Do you have any problem?

    Students: No, sir.

    Professor: Now we learn about the different types of interaction. Odum (1971) distinguish the interaction in two broad categories:
    1. Positive interaction
    2. Negative interaction
    What do you imagine about positive interaction and negative interaction?

    Student 3: Sir, positive means something right and negative means something wrong.
    Professor: Yes when two species interact in the way that they are helpful to each other or at least one organism is benefitted then it is called positive interaction. When both or one animal is harmed then this type of interaction is called negative interaction. Do you understand? Should we go ahead?
    Students: yes, sir.

    Professor: Positive interactions are of three types:
    1. Commensalism
    2. Protocooperation
    3. Mutualism
    Have you heard about them?

    Students: No, sir.

    Professor: Commensalism is a type of interaction in which the organisms of two different species are interrelated. One is benefitted and other is neither benefitted nor harmed. Can you give an example of commensalism?

    Students 2: Yes, sir. An epiphyte is the example of commensalism.

    Professor: Very good. We have learnt about it in the previous class.

    Professor: In protocooperation, both organisms are benefitted but not obligatory. It means not essential for the survival of either organism. The relation between a hermit crab and sea anemone is the best example of protocooperation. Do you understand?

    Students: Yes, sir.

    Student 1: Sir what is the meaning of mutualism?

    Professor: When two species grow together and are mutually benefitted then it is called mutualism. This type of relationship may exist in between two plants or in between one plant and one animal or in between two animals. Lichen is an example of mutualism. Do you understand dear students?

    Students: Yes, sir.

    Student 3: Sir, what are the types of negative interaction?

    Professor: Dear students, there are four types of negative interaction. But we will learn about them in our next lecture. Now, prepare a project about the positive interactions and submit within two days.

    Students: Ok sir. Thank you very much.

    Professor: Thanks, students. Bye.

    Students: Bye, sir.

    Honesty is the best policy.

  • #709756
    A lecture to M.Sc. Biology students.
    Subject: Environmental Biology
    Chapter: Mutual Relationship

    (Professor enters the Class)
    Students: Good Morning Ma'am,
    Professor: Very Good Morning Students.

    Professor: Today, I am going to teach you a very interesting topic. However, already you have studied this topic in your previous classes. But it is a very important topic and at least one question is asked in M.Sc. Biology exams every year.

    Let's start the discussion. But first, I have some questions for you.
    Does anyone of you have pets in your homes?
    (Many students raised their hands )

    Student 1: Yes Ma'am, I have a pet.
    Student 2: I also have a pet dog in my home.

    Professor: Good. Now tell me, what benefits you get from them?
    Student 1: Ma'am, he accompanies me and I enjoy with him and I love to walk with him.
    Student 2: He protects us from strangers.

    Professor: And, what benefit they gets from you?
    Student 1: We provide food and shelter to them.

    Professor: Very good. Now tell me, what is this relationship called?
    (Some student said "Co-existence". Some said "Stay-together".)

    Well, all the answers are right, but there is a scientific term for this i.e. mutual relationship and you might have remembered about the mutual relationship. This is the relationship between two different species and it is of two types:

    Symbiotic relationship and Parasitic relationship.

    First, we will discuss the symbiotic relationship. It is a mutually beneficial relationship beneficial to both the partner species. A common example of a symbiotic relationship is a relationship between a flower and an insect. Here insect gets nectar (food) from the flower and in this act; pollen gets attached to the insect's body and transferred to another flower, thus helps in pollination.

    Again symbiotic/mutually beneficial relationship can also be divided into two categories. One is commensalism, which can be described as a mutual relationship between two species when one is beneficial to others, but the other one is neither harmful nor helpful to the second party. The second one is Mutualism. It is an interrelationship between two species where both species will be benefited by each other.

    See, not all the relationships are always beneficial. Sometimes one species may harm to others. Such type of relationship in which one species will get benefited but causes harm to the partner species is called as the parasitic relationship. And such species which cause harm to another species and get benefitted themselves are called parasites. Common examples of such species are lice, fleas, mosquitoes, hookworms, etc. They live inside or outside on the body of human beings or other animals and get food from them, but they also cause harm to these organisms.

    Further, we can denote the relationship by using (+), (0) and (-) signs. Where '+' will denote the 'benefit', '-'will denote 'harm' and '0' will denote 'no effect'. So, mutualism, where both species get the benefit, can be depicted as '+, +'. In commensalism, one species gets benefits but does not affect other species, hence it can be shown as '+, 0' and as in parasitism one species always get the benefit and other species is harmed hence it is depicted as '+, -'.

    Students, I hope you have understood and enjoyed the topic. Now there is a small exercise for you. Find some common examples of commensalism, mutualism and parasitic relationship. Tomorrow we will discuss these examples in details.

    Have a nice day.

    Students: Thank you, Ma'am.

  • #709759
    A lesson to postgraduation students of English
    Topic: Indian literature in English and its translation
    Chapter: Gora (A novel by Rabindranath Tagore)

    Good Morning! Students
    Good Morning! Teacher

    Students, we have lost a few months of our academic calendar, but now we have to speed up. Before the unwanted long break, I had decided to start the novel, Gora, by Tagore. Today, I will discuss it in the class.

    We all know that Rabindranath Tagore was the first Noble Laureate from India. His works; poetry, prose, dance drama, short story, novel are all in Bangla (Bengali). He translated Gitanjali in English by the name of Song Offerings, and for it, he received the Noble Prize. Well, now let me talk to you about the Indian literature. It's an extremely rich, isn't it students?

    Students: Yes, Ma'm

    Can you name a few great Indian authors whose contribution has made the Indian literature so gripping?

    Students: R. K. Narayan, Mulk Raj Anand, Premchand, Tagore, Bankim Chandra, Sarat Chandra, Maithili Sharan Gupta, M Mukundan, Anita Desai and so on.

    Madam: That's very good. The names you have mentioned, among them there are some whose work is in English, and there are some whose writings are in their mother tongue. Those who are non-English writers, their many prose and poetry have been translated into English. Among them, one is Rabindranath Tagore. His contribution to Bengali literature is unparallel, and his works which got translated in English or any other Indian language has made the literature of the particular language extremely powerful.

    Students, I have given you a brief introduction of Tagore which you are not unaware of him. In our M.A. English Course, one paper is devoted to the translated work of the non-English literature of Indian writers. It's our privilege to understand Tagore through his novel titled Gora, which is originally a Bengali novel, but we will study the translation work of the same book.

    Tell me, students, what do you understand by the name of the title Gora. Some students kept mum while a few said, fair, while one student firmly said that it means rigid.

    Madam: Only one has given the right answer and it's because she is a Bengali. Now, let me give you a short description of the novel. Gora is a Bengali word which means rigid or hardliner. Those who said fair, it's not right because Gora is a Bengali word and not Hindi.

    She further added, Gora is the name of the male protagonist. He was rigid about adhering to the principles of Hinduism. Firstly, it was published in a series form in a Bengali magazine, afterwards in 1910, got published as a complete novel. Today I will give you an overview of the story and would like you to read the book before the next class of mine, which will be after five days. I would like to know your interpretation which will help me to explain it further.

    Today, let me briefly explain to you that the novel Gora though written in the era of casteism, nationalism, against humankind, during staunch religionism such as Hinduism against the liberals such as Brahmo Samaj, depriving women of free-thinking, the author progressively presented the characters. Be it in the adoption of Gora, who was an infant of the dead Irish couple, by a Hindu Brahmin family, or even the three female characters in the novel who were very rational beings and had no shackle in their mind. Gora was an Irish man, had very fair skin but, brought up by Hindu parents made him a staunch believer of Hinduism. He could never accept that liberal thought of an educated section of Hindus known as Brahmo Samaj could bring in any positive change. Gora's best friend was Brahmo as well as the lady whom he loved was also Brahmo and gradually from being a staunch supporter of Hinduism learnt to accept the goodness of another faith.

    The progressiveness of Gora's mother though academically not so educated and Sucharita and Lalita, two young ladies, had a free-thinking mind which was promoted by their father. It was rare during the nineteenth century when Tagore wrote Gora.

    Well, students, I have given you the gist of the novel. Next class is after five days, so you read the complete book and assess all the characters. We will have a thorough discussion of the novel in the next few classes. While reading, try to understand the backdrop of the story, find out the similarities of that era and the present one, emphasize on Tagore's language and his path-breaking thought process. Be prepared for a long discussion in the next class. Thank you, students.

    Students: Thank you, Madam.


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