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    India opposes the ban on endosulfan. Do you agree? Active GD

    Members,

    In agriculture we are using 'Endosulfan' widely. As a result of this many people are affected badly. The number of victims of this dangerous pesticide is very high in Kaserkode district in Kerala and southern Karnataka. Many children are born with defects. Now this issue is widely discussed.

    ISC is also joining this discussion with the GD India opposes the ban on endosulfan. Do you agree? Members can participate in this GD. Post your views on this topic as a response to this thread. GD will end on 27th April.
  • #195966
    To help out members in giving their views, I would like to give you some information on endosulfan in simple words:

    Endosulfan is basically an insecticide used to destroy pests and is primarily used by farmers to destroy pests which are harmful to their crops. The issue is that India is the main producer & exporter of this insecticide, but also is a member of the Stockholm Convention which was established to protect the health of humans & the environment. So, as per this Convention, member countries should not use, produce, export, etc anything which is harmful to human health and the environment. Now the Stockholm Convention has tagged endosulfan as harmful and included it in their list of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Research studies allegedly state that endosulfan causes birth defects and is harmful to the male reproductive system and a recenty study was done of a village in Kasargod, Keral where the harmful effects were exposed through a study.

    Other than India, apparently only China and Argentina are opposed to the ban whereas most member countries of the Stockholm Convention are supporting the ban.

    When you make a commitment, you create hope. When you keep a commitment you create trust! ~ John C. Maxwell

  • #195967
    Endosulfan is a pesticide of which India is the largest user and one of the largest exporters too.Due to its highly toxic nature it has been banned by almost 81 countries but India is still reluctant to do so inspite of the hazadrous effects on health of thousands of people in Kerala and parts of Karnataka.

    Endosulfan is bio-accumulative and persistent in nature which means that it has the capacity to accumulate in human and animal bodies and inhaled through its persistent levels in the environment.This has caused serious abnormalities in people around the district of Kaserkode in Kerala where the pesticide was being sprayed aerially with the help of helicopters in cashew plantations owned by the Plantation Corporation of Kerala for the past several years.About 4000 people have died according to unofficial estimates while hundreds are suffering from several disorders including children with congenital disorders.There had been a ban on endosulfan for a short period in Kerala but the Indian Government is still reluctant to ban it completely resorting to sheer apathy and greed for commercial gains.The nexus between the pesticide producers and Government is clearly showing.The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is to begin on 25th April and a great opposition is felt by the Indian Government from politicians,citizen groups and social activists to its apathy towards consenting to the ban of endosulphan in the convention.
    People with skin,vision and reproductive disorders are increasing in the areas of Kerala and Karnataka but they are only being provided with short-term relief and that is compensation and treatment but the permanent solution is being ignored.A total ban on endosulfan is the need of the hour.

  • #195968
    The state government of Kerala is the first to pressurise central government to take a stand in to ban on the production and its use. A conference known as Stockholm Conventions is likely to be held in Geneva from April 25, 2011. Many concerned countries are likely to participate in this convention. Till now the Central government was ignoring the demand to ban the use of this deadly pesticide which caused miseries among farmers and others who became the victims of this poisonous substance. Both the chief minister and the forest minister of Kerala have strongly recommended a global ban on Endosulfan at the Stockholm Convention being held to review the use of persistent organic pollutants in the world. They have pointed out that India's stand at the Stockholm convention should not be guided by the trade interests of India. They raised their objection to the policy which was a brain child of the Union Minister for Agriculture Mr Sharad Pawar. It is pertinent to mention here that India produces 9000 tonnes of Endosulfan annually. 50% of this chemical is being used in the country itself.

    The Kerala forest minister asked all the people to join in the signature campaign to protest against the stand which the central government took on the use of Endosulfan, most of which was being used in the plantation industry of the Kerala state. Kerala Agriculture Minister Mullakkara Ratnakaran also has expressed similar sentiments while writing to Union Minister for Agriculture Sharad Pawar on the subject. He wrote that the manufacture and use of Endosulfan and its preparations with several trade names should be banned in the country due to the health hazards caused by its use. So, there is a strong sentiment especially in Kerala to pressurise the central government for its ban on the national level. This will prevent even its smuggling from the production centres to its ultimate users in states like Kerala where it is already banned. The views expressed for ban on national level also argue that a ban in a particular state will not be effective. They argue how you can stop the inter-states movement of vegetables and fruits infected by Endosulfan. So, the point to emphasize is that the people of Kerala will still be affected by this poisonous substance in spite of its ban in Kerala. Hence Endosulfan must be banned at the national level. The states of Kerala and Karnataka are mostly affected by its use. Many countries have already banned Endosulfan in their countries and our government must rise to the occasion now and ban it totally. Refuting the central government's argument that there is no cheap alternative to Endosulfan, it is pointed out the use of locally made organic insecticides should be encouraged which would suit the local needs and will also environmental friendly. If the alternative safe pesticides are costly, it is the government's duty to give subsidies for their production. The government cannot play with the health of the people on this count.

    There is no denying the fact as pointed out Julie Jha that the people of Kerala and Karnataka have undergone a lot of suffering due the uncontrolled spraying of the pesticide on Cashew nut and other plantations in Kerala. Not enough has been done to rehabilitate the victims of Endosulfan. It must be understood that the cashew-nut and coconut plantations are the life lines of Kerala and will affect the economy of the state very badly. So, along with the ban on the use of Endosulfan, the alternative organic pesticides must be developed and used in plenty to save the Kerala economy from deterioration.

    "Teaching is my passion and sharing knowledge is my motto"
    Regards,
    Sukhdev Singh
    Lead Editor Forums Section

  • #196044
    hello

    Killer drug endosulfan is banned i kerala, govt of kerala has officially banned endosulfan but it is still used i kerala, just because it is not yet banned in other states of the country.

    its been 10 long years they have been studying on the effects of endosulfan, Indian scientist are still studying, as chief minister of Kerala comrade V.S said the central govt is still insulting the victims of endosulfan.

    Shrad pawar is still reluctant to ban the drug in India, seeing the misery of the people of Kazargode 81 nations have banned it, but India opposed the ban of endosulfan in the international conference.

    Largest pesticide and related drugs in India are produced by company owned by one of the Rajyasabha member of the country, a high profile liquor merchant, brought in the the rajyasbha by Congress, how could the UPA govt take an action against their own man

  • #196074
    In my opinion India should ban endosulfan. Endosulfan is the most dangerous pesticide now used in the world. Even though most countries have banned the use of endosulfan, India still uses it. Due to the toxicity, it should be banned in our country. The high officials can only give order to use it. Remember that it is the local people who suffer from it. Kerala is an important place where the dangerous effects of endosulfan are seen. The reports have shown that kasargod district situated in Kerala is worst hit by this poison. Even though the demerits of this poison are known to every people then why our own country is opposing the ban of endosulfan? Only the local people are suffering from this dangerous pesticide. It is the duty of our nation to save the people by banning this poison.

    It will be good to find an alternative for endosulfan which should be very safe to use.India is considered as the largest producer of this dangerous poison in the world. You must always remember the fact that people who are engaged in producing endosulfan are also having a chance to get the side effects of this pesticide. By opposing the ban on endosulfan, India government is avoiding the suffering of the people & at the same time protecting the interest of the companies which produce this pesticide. Human health & environment should be given prior importance when compared to the endosulfan producing companies.

    We must bear the sufferings of people. Environmentalists as well as Kerala government are raising their sounds against India government in their attitude for opposing the ban of endosulfan. I hope in the coming Stockholm conventions which are supposed to be held at Geneva, Switzerland from April 25 onwards India government will raise their voice for the ban of endosulfan. Incase there is a pressure from various political parties or some other reasons, India government is favoring the use of endosulfan, then who will bear the pain & sorrows of the people who suffered from the drastic situations of endosulfan?

    Regards
    Asha

  • #196082
    Dear Asha Kurian,

    You have given two paradoxical statements in your view about Endosulfan. Your opening statement says that India should not oppose the ban of Endosulfan whereas in the rest of argument you have favoured a ban on Endosulfan. If your first statement is a typing error, then please edit and correct it, because you cannot give the statements which are contradictory to each other. The argument has to be either in favour of ban or against it. The whole of the arguments after your first sentence goes for the ban and I agree with it. The reasons given you for ban on Endosulfan are quite substantial.

    "Teaching is my passion and sharing knowledge is my motto"
    Regards,
    Sukhdev Singh
    Lead Editor Forums Section

  • #196114
    In my opinion endosulfan should be banned in India. It is very dangerous to human beings and as already reported in some parts of kerala and Karnataka, due to extensive use of endosulfan ,children were born with deformities. Endosulfan has advserse effect not only on the human beings but also on the ecology as well. By using Endosulfan, it notly clears the pests but also kills amphibians like frogs, birds, lizards etc., which otherwise helps to controls the pests. Though by using endosulfan farmers may get immediate relief to their problems but on the long run their dependency on pesticides becomes more and more.

    Agriculture , and farming existed in our country from time immemorial. In olden days they never used any kind of pesticides. They were more dependent on the nature's control on the pesticide. This method was highly successful and did not had any health hazards.

    Extensive use of artificial manure is the main cause for the lack of natural resistence with the agricultutal plants. Agriculturists are attracted to high yeild by using the artificial manure. This has chain of adverse effects. Farmers having invested more money on artificial manure are compelled to use pesticide like endosulfan to protect their high yeild.

    In order to come out of the problems of endosulfan farmers need to go back traditional method of farming. This movement has already started in some parts of our country and this needs to be encouraged further. Under this system farmers will not be using any kind of artificial manure or pest control.

    When we buy vegetables and fruits from the market we may not know how much pesticide we consume along with fruits and vegetables. This definately has bad affect on our health in different forms.

    I do not know why government is opposing the ban on endosulfan. Government should support the ban and look at the welfare of the people. Government should not have any concern and yield to the pressure from the business organisations.

    "If you don’t understand my silence, you will not understand my words"
    Unknown

  • #196120
    I would certainly go with the appeal for an absolute ban of endosulfan in India. Endosulfan, as Ms.Vandana said, is a powerful insecticide that protects the crops from pests and insects. It is true that endosulfan acts as an excellent pesticide and protects the farmers from crop losses due to pest-attacks. But what is the point in accepting the use of this pesticide, when the same acts as a life-killer?

    Being a Keralite, I am aware of the health issues for which endosulfan have been scrutinized in recent years. Endosulfan, which was most used in the district of Kasargod in Kerala has left the people of that region in pains and disease. Even after the endosulfan-ban in Kerala, the aftereffects of this dangerous pesticide haunt the people even today. It is true that the harmful effects spread mostly among the families engaged in farming and agriculture. Even then, a broader spectrum of the Keralite society has felt the need to oppose the use of endosulfan. This shows the impact endosulfan has made in Kerala. Even today, a child born in the district of Kasargod is either born with handicaps or has chances of acquiring a genetic mishap. Here is going through the harmful impacts that endosulfan causes on human-bodies:

    1.Endosulfan sprayed on cashew plantations of Muliyar for more than 20 years has caused several deaths and unusual health-hazards in the region.

    2.Endosulfan when released into water can cause terrible health hazards. Drinking water gets poisonous.

    3.Where endosulfan is sprayed as aerial sprays, children and adults are forced to become living martyrs.

    4.Over the years, the children born near those cashew plantations were endosulfan was sprayed are born with defects that lead to congenital diseases, cancer, skin allergies, epilepsy, asthma, mental retardness and infertility.

    5.Endosulpan is the sole culprit to many unusual deaths that has been happening in the hilly terrains of Kasargod. The regions affected being underdeveloped and limitedly medical-equipped, the lives of those poor farmers turn into hell.


    Aren't these enough reasons for our country to issue an absolute ban on the use of endosulfan?

  • #196129
    Let them provide an alternative, later ban can be imposed by government

    Endosulfan is a pesticide which is widely used in India. There are three major manufacturers in India. People get this cheaply as it is most beneficial to farmers. India is the second largest consumer of Endosulfan in the world.

    Where is alternative to Endosulfan?
    There is no perfect alternative to Endosulfan. It is cheaper than any other pesticide when compared with uses of it. India and China are not ready to shun it. The secret is that any pesticide which is used cannot be perfect after 3 to 4 years' use. Endosulfan has been in agricultural field for 50 years, still it is worthy to stop pests.

    What shall we eat?
    Endosulfan is effectively used in 29 different crops. Some foreign companies' spurious and ineffective pesticides are making farmers die. Two states have banned it and revoked because there are no perfect alternatives with affordable price tag. Endosulfan is friendly pesticide which cannot affect pollination which helps have good productivity for farmers.

    What are present alternatives to Endosulfan?


    Flubendiamide is 26 times costlier than Endosulfan. Chlorantraniliprole is 43 times costlier than this pesticide. Flubendiamide39.35sc is an alternative which is 59 times costlier. Endosulfan is cheap and effective than any other pesticide with multiple uses. That is why, government is not ready to ban it.

    Endosulfan ban and results


    • Food prices arise and subsequent and attached arenas get affected.
    • Inflation increases.
    • Hunger deaths
    • Increase in the rate of farmer suicides.
    • Foreign pesticides companies will be benefitted.
    • Government collapses. Hence, governments do not agree.

    Does India have to continue Endosulfan?


    I say no. But, we have to bear this burden until we find alternative. That is what laid on Kasargod people of Kerala. Perfect alternatives are to be invented. Government should fund for inventions. Our scientists are working for foreign companies. If they are in our teams, there is no need to spend on patent costs. Even though this is not ultimate, we have to use bio-fertilisers and bio-pesticides instead of Endosulfan. But, these too have some limitations.

    "Look at ants and learn"

  • #196147
    Hi Sukhdev Singh Sir
    Thanks for pointing out my mistake. It was a typing error that came from my side.

    Regards
    Asha

  • #196178
    It is true that our agriculture and plantations are age old as pointed by Krishnadas. We used to get a quality and nutritious food with the use of natural organic pesticides. Some times there were not insecticides and pesticides used at all in the ancient methods of production of various crops. But the things have changed now. The needs of produced crops are different with increase in population. We have tremendously increased our production of crops by the use of fertilisers and insecticides. The only thing required is that we have to see the safety and health of population. As we ban the harmful drugs, the same way harmful pesticides like Endosulfan also should be banned. As regards the cost of the alternatives as pointed out by Chakravarthi, I have already emphasized that we should subsidize them for their increased production and should also spend on research to find more of organic pesticides.
    "Teaching is my passion and sharing knowledge is my motto"
    Regards,
    Sukhdev Singh
    Lead Editor Forums Section

  • #196285
    India is an agriculture major nation and it is the duty of the government to ensure the rapid growth in this sector but ensuring the welfare of the people too who are associated with this sector.We cannot allow the silent deaths and miseries to continue just because there is no cheap alternative to endosulfan.If people may die of hunger because crop production is low in case of endosulfan's ban as stated by Chakravarthi,I think there is more cases of death and suffering due to the pesticide as children who are dependent on their parents are suffering from several abnormalities and are crippled for lifetime.This is worse than death.

    Researches should be carried out to find out alternatives and also farmers should be provided governmental assistance in the form of cheaper loans and subsidies so that farming sector boosts.Biological control of pests and maintaining pest levels below a threshold level rather than using chemicals to completely eradicate them which has been tried in Andhra Pradesh should be encouraged among farmers all over the country.Traditional methods like using extracts of certain plants for spraying as pesticides should be revived and taught to farmers.Neem,Nerium and Argemone have even been mentioned in ancient texts as pest warders and can be used in case of vegetables,fruits and small crop areas as field trials for the same have been found to be effective by scientists.

    The agriculture minister should focus on these issues immediately as lives of people is at high risk rather than focussing on cricket and corrupt dealings and then blurting out callous statements like - there is no evidence to show that spraying of endosulfan has caused crippling and deaths of people in areas around cashew plantations by Plantation Corporation Kerala.

  • #196290
    I agree with the views and concerns expressed by Julie Jha and would stress on the following points as far use of Endosulfan is concerned:

    1. The use of less poisonous and non-poisonous alternatives should be encouraged by subsidising their prices for the users till more cheap alternatives are found and the use of Endosulfan should be immediately banned by the central government.

    2. The research work to find out organic pesticides should be encouraged and taken up at a faster rate by giving incentives to the research scientists in this field.

    3. The necessary steps should be taken by the governmental authorities to rehabilitate the victims of this deadly substance called Endosulfan and appropriate compensation should be paid to the families who have suffered because of this for no fault of their own.

    4. Leases for cashew nut plantations should not be extended for those plantation owners who do not stop or take measure to stop the use of Endosulfan whether smuggled or otherwise.

    "Teaching is my passion and sharing knowledge is my motto"
    Regards,
    Sukhdev Singh
    Lead Editor Forums Section

  • #196342
    Glad to know that everybody who participated in this discussion till now has opposed the use of Endosulfan as a pesticide. If a united response against Endosulfan reaches the government, then India may also join the league of countries that stand against Endosulfan.

    And regarding Mr.Chakravarthy's views on the positive aspects of Endosulfan, I would say that I certainly do respect science's invention of this very effective pesticide. It may be true that Endosulfan helps to achieve very high crop yields at an extremely cheap cost. But think! Can we rely on this toxic chemical and confidently consume the agricultural products which may possibly be poisoned with it? Endosulfan gives great yields. But we shall not forget that these great yields also yield us innumerable diseases. Intake of Endosulfan-sprayed fruits, vegetables and crops can cause as much harm to the consumers as it does to the people of Kasargod.

    Considering the negative impact Endosulfan can have on the present generation as well as on many more generations which are yet to come, it would be definitely appropriate to stop the use of Endosulfan. Even after shocking revelations of the harmful effects of Endosulfan, I wonder why the Indian government hesitates to eliminate this devilish pesticide from our country.

    As Mr.Sukhdev, Mr.Krishnadas and many other members said, the Agriculture-researchers of the nation should either re-invent traditional pest-controlling measures or develop new techniques to control pests rather than continuing the use of Endosulfan.

  • #196364
    @Sukhdev sir,
    I appreciate your solution. But sir, one doubt, why has government deregulated the petrol and diesel rates? It is not because it had to bear 4 or 5 rupees per litre. But, about Endosulfan, its cost per liter is 286 rupees whereas Flubendiamide 39.35 SC Rs.13800. Can government subsidise it for every farmer? And Endosulfan works on 29 crops. That is the reason government is not banning and not giving subsidies to farmers regarding alternative. Thank you for supporting the cause of research and bio-fertiliser.

    @Julie Jha
    Thank you for taking the repercussions of hunger so easily. The hunger will not be hunger, he becomes thief, later murderer and ultimately anti-social element. It is said by UNFO that the greatest disease on the earth is hunger. Madam, do not think that only avillage or two villages go hunger, total India goes hunger as we use it extensively in our fields. We are second largest user of Endosulfan in the world after Brazil. Only Kasargod of Kerala and Dakshina Kannada people are reported sufferers because of unique cases over there. It is sprayed Endosulfan from flyers. Thank you for giving good point to discuss.

    @Adwaith
    Kosargod people are not the only persons who are having this Endosulfan, all over India are having Endosulfan used in its field. It is extensively used in every state. But, we have to know why only two places are in the news. Actually we should not use any chemical. But, truth is that you and I am also eating Endosulfan field foods. Thank you.

    I am not supporting Endosulfan use in our fields. I do not support any chemical pesticide in Indian fields. I want to remind you the repercussions we face due to the ban of Endosulfan now. I want to give you the reason why government is not banning Endosulfan. We need alternative. It is used all over India. It is used in Andra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and rest of the states of India. Why are there no reports like Kasargod of Kerala? To know more about Endosulfan effects visit Endosulfan benefits, dangers and its need in India.


    I strongly oppose chemical pesticide in using the fields. But, we have to think improving bio-fertilisers rather than banning Endosulfan first.

    "Look at ants and learn"

  • #196380
    Hi all,
    Really a great topic of discussion and one of the major issues of the country.
    Reading the views of the fellow members I form this view that most of us like me support the Ban on endosulfan in India. Endosulfan is a potentially harmful insecticide not only for the beneficial crop-friendly insects but also for humans. The misery of the people of Kerela is a perfect example. Those consuming the agri products with endosulfan's presence have developed deformities and this clearly indicates this harmful insecticide's threat.
    The main cause behind India's opposing this endosulfan's ban is a mixture of economical and political condition. Most part of the production of endosulfan is exported and as it is mainly produced by a govt owned company, the political barriers have also increased.
    In my opinion, endosulfan should be banned immediately throughout the country so that it may not cause any damage in the future. It is the country's people whose lives are at stake and nothing is important than them. Losses maybe there if Endosulfan is banned but loss of lives is far more and major than loss of money and its high time that the political cameos should realise this fact.

    Regards
    Akshay
    Pay no heed to those who talk behind your back, it simply means that you are two steps ahead !

  • #196394
    I don't agree with Mr.Chakravarthi that without endosulfan there will be hunger all over.There was no endosulfan in olden times so did the people die of hunger?Why can't we find out other alternatives or use less toxic pesticides which are not persistent in nature.And,it is the rampant use of pesticides that has led to resistance in pests.Had we harped upon more biological and traditional methods this problem would not have arisen.

    A crippled man's family will eventually die of hunger and anti-social leanings.The amount spent in compensating the victims of endosulfan along with their treatment,rehabilitation and compensating for related occupations like bee-keeping and farming far exceeds the cost incurred in plant protection through other alternatives according to a report presented by a POP review committee.Many developing nations are receiving the help of U.N agencies for developing alternatives to endosulfan and India should too consider this along with local manufacturing and distributing of organic pesticides.

    And,let me tell you Mr. Chakravarthi that not every individual who consumes tobacco or smokes cigarettes or bidis die of lung cancer but that does not mean that tobacco is not carcinogenic and deaths due to their consumption are unique cases.

  • #196403
    @ Julie Jha

    I am not supporting Endosulfan, but banning it would lead to these circumstances. First, let us go to search for alternative, later ban it. Now, itself we have 27% poverty, banning immediately has its repercussions. The difference is that I am talking of practical solution. Please read my first reply where I have noted the price list of alternatives.

    Time line for your clarification: (for your first question)

    In 1921, Indian population is 20 crores. People went with naturally available pesticides. people suffered here too.

    In 2011, 121 crores. How can you apply the same criteria to this population?

    First green revolution (1960s): Use more fertiliser and pesticide to get more production. Here Endosulfan was also entered. It has history of 50 years in agricultural field. Now, Pratibha Patilji is calling for second green revolution. It means more use of fertiliser is going to play role. With old type fertilisers you cannot feed 121 crore people.

    To your second question:

    India and China have not agreed to ban. If they banned they have to lose all their money to foreign companies. Foreign companies are funding against this movement against Endosulfan. We have to buy pesticides from foreign companies or have to pay royalty which is most costlier.

    My question: Why are we not affected even though we are using Endosulfan? (Every state of India is using it. Farmers use this pesticide in vegetables also) Madam, answer this question please. Do not say long term. Even you drink Coca-cola, you will have effects.

    Even you disagree with me, I support your intention. I want to have practical solution rather than ideal.

    "Look at ants and learn"

  • #196405
    I don't agree with the point that we should first provide an alternative for endosulfan & later impose ban as suggested by Mr Chakravarthi. Time is going on & the sufferings of people is increasing. They have to bear the pain & loss themselves. If we are in their place, can we say that we shall bear the pains until an alternative is discovered? Since I am from Kerala, I cannot say that we should wait until an alternative is discovered & after that endosulfan should be banned. All pesticides are poisonous to human beings. When it is found more toxic, it should be banned immediately. By means of spraying this pesticide, it was distributed throughout the district causing dangerous problems to people. I think the low price of endosulfan is the main factor which is attracted by India government. Earlier studies conducted by ICMR in this district proved that this pesticide is a highly toxic. India should more focus on developing pesticides which are having low price & no side effects.

    Also Mr Chakravarthi have mentioned that endosulfan ban results in hunger deaths & suicide of farmers. How can you say that a deadly poison can cause hunger deaths? Due to the toxic nature, this pesticide was banned in many countries. Mostly people die of hunger if they are not given the proper nutritional foods. For getting good quality foods, they must have money, which is obtained by their work. People working with endosulfan( that means those who are manufacturing it, using it, having direct contact while using in plantations) may lose their job if endosulfan is banned. Companies producing endosulfan must start thinking of an alternative for this pesticide. It is the duty of India government to give the necessary amount for this production. Money is wasted in many ways in our country. If it is properly used, we can definitely develop a perfect pesticide with low price & no side effects. In this way the people working with manufacturing companies will never lose their job. Endosulfan is not the last perfect pesticide which can be used in plantations. If farmers didn't get the expected profit from their plantations, they end their life mainly due to a fear of how to face the rest of the life?. Some other pesticides can also be used instead of endosulfan but the government should ensure that no plantations are going on loss. Make sure that no farmers are having any loss in their cultivations. Instead of wasting money for unnecessary activities, India government should spend it according to the need & situations properly.

    Regards
    Asha

  • #196431
    Hi all,
    I think we are not understanding the situation properly, even if the govt agrees to ban endosulfan, it won't be done in a day or two. It will definately take months for this harmful insecticide to vanish completely from our country and this much time is sufficient for scientists to suggest a new and better alternative. The discussion is about whether it should be banned or not and it is the need of the hour that it should be banned taking into account the worse situation. Its the duty of the govt to provide an alternative and it will have to provide it at any cost but ignoring people's lives for money is no good.
    Hence the need of the hour is the govt's say in this matter about this pesticide and to find its alternative is the next priority.

    Regards
    Akshay
    Pay no heed to those who talk behind your back, it simply means that you are two steps ahead !

  • #196445
    It is delightful to know that majority of us have recognized the need for an immediate ban of Endosulfan in India. After reading the members' observations, I would also like to express my views on the effects Endosulfan has had and can have in future on the Indian agriculture and farming sector. Here is a brief description of the issue of endosulfan in Kerala:

    Besides Kasargod, Endosulfan has adversely affected the people of Palakkad, Kannur, Idukki and Wayanad districts of Kerala state.

    Endosulfan, the most poisonous and harmful insecticide has become a killer chemical to the inhabitants of places where it is being used. Kerala is the first state to raise a complaint against Endosulfan because we have ample evidence and living martyrs to prove the harmful effects of this killer chemical.

    Kasaragod and Endosulphan


    Kasaragod is a beautiful district in the northern end of Kerala. 25 years back, the Plantation Corporation of Kerala started cultivating cashew trees in an area of 2000 hectares of land in Kasaragod district. Endosulfan was sprayed aerially through helicopters for two to three times a day. This indiscriminate use of endosulfan affected the inhabitants of 11 panchayaths in the district very badly. In the initial years, people couldn't detect and related their sufferings as the effects of endosulphan. But when abnormal deaths and unusual diseases became a series, experts and doctors started enquiries to find out the reason for the peculiar health problems in Kasaragod. Studies could find more than 150 diseases and abnormalities in the population of the 11 panchayaths. Everything pointed towards endosulfan.

    Effects found on humans


    1.Children are born with handicaps.

    2.Cancer of different types in adults and children.

    3.Allergies and asthma.

    4.Cerebral palsy and mental retardation.

    5.Epilepsy.

    6.Increased rate of miscarriages among women.

    7.Genetic mutations in infants.

    8.Drowsiness and head aches.

    The list is endless.

    Studies revealed that the soil and water too are contaminated and poisoned.

    The sufferings of the people of Kasaragod have become a big question mark against the conscience of all. Why a group of people are forced to live in eternal miseries and diseases for a fault of not theirs? Though the government of Kerala could ban the use of endosulfan in the state recently, the killer insecticide is still prevalent in other names. Hence we demand an absolute ban on manufacture, supply and use of endosulfan throughout India.

    The stand of central govt


    Besides Kerala, certain other states like Karnataka have also demanded the ban of endosulfan. Reports of ill effects are there from Punjab, the agrarian state too. Even then the Govt of India, especially the ministry of Agriculture refuses to impose a ban on the use of endosulfan. The ministries of Environmental protection, health, forest etc also keep silence. The official arguments are:

    1. The harmful effects of endosulfan is not a 'national issue'.
    2. It cannot be banned on the request of a few states.
    3. There is no cheaper pesticide available to farmers.
    4. The improper use of the pesticide might have been the reason for the harmful effects.
    5. A further study by the ICMR is required.

    There are about 160 reports on the harms of endosulfan. There are cases of thousands of unusual deaths. There are thousands and thousands of living martyrs to prove endosulfan. Why our ministries want more proofs? Why they need another study report?
    Environmentalists, social activists and people suspect a nexus between the authorities and the pesticide lobby. Something is there behind their refusal to enforce a total ban on endosulfan. Allegations that the ministry of agriculture acts as the 'brand ambassador' of endosulfan seem true.

    Endosulfan and environment


    Everyone knows that endosulfan is not a mere pesticide. It has been causing much harm to environment, soil and water. It is destroying precious human lives.
    US, the first country to produce endosulfan, has already banned it. About 81 nations has realized the potential harm and have banned endosulfan.Many nations who recognized the impact and incidence of this killer chemical have requested for a global ban on endosulfan and to stop production of it.
    Studies in Kasaragod and in various parts of the world have convinced undoubtedly that it is harmful to humans, all the environmental species and the environment itself.
    Even the report of ICMR about 9 years back has established the harms.
    Why the ministries of forests, environmental protection and health in our country seem blind? Why they pretend to be sleeping?

    Another study by the ICMR being insisted by our ministries will further worsen the situation. It will lead to even more delay for the ban. There is no relevance to make further studies. The report that India alone protested against the proposed ban during the last convention is really mysterious

    Demand of Kerala


    The people of Kerala and the Govt of Kerala are trying their level best to urge our prime minister to take a stand against endosulfan in the forthcoming Stockholm convention on the use of persistent organic pollutants on April 25th..
    But our prime minister also did not respond positively to an all party delegation who met him yesterday. But he gave an assurance that he would visit Kasaragod and meet the victims there and the question of ban would be considered on receipt of the ICMR report.
    Daily reports and pictures of endosulfan victims, especially children, are heart breaking. There are reports that the women of Kasaragod undergo sterilization surgeries and foeticides to avoid birth of genetically disabled, physically and mentally challenged kids. What else is needed to open the eyes of the authorities?

    As a Keralite, I strongly believe that endosulfan need be banned world wide and action need be taken to find proper organic and biological substitute pesticides.

  • #196554
    Dear members,

    A new development has taken place very recently.The central government does not seem to heeding the advice of the Kerala government. The Kerala Chief Minister said hundreds of people of Kerala and Karnataka had died and many are suffering from deformities due the use of endosulfan. In spite of all this the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, the agriculture minister Sharad Pawar and the Environment minister Jairam Ramesh are all singing the same song that a detailed study is needed before any decision is taken to ban endosulfan on national scale. The most astonishing is the fact that the six central ministers in the UPA government from Kerala are keeping mum on the subject. The Chief Minister of Kerala V.S. Achuthanandan termed this stand of the central government as deplorable.

    "Teaching is my passion and sharing knowledge is my motto"
    Regards,
    Sukhdev Singh
    Lead Editor Forums Section

  • #196707
    Hello

    1.Its been around 10 years since Endosulfan was found to be harming the people, rather killing, No alternative yet, how come.....???

    2.In 2002 there were 32 pesticides used in India which ere banned globally and now in 2011 number is 62.I dont know weather 121 crore are fed with these.......it is still a question to debate

    3.70% of Endosulfan is produced in India, large revenue come by y this to the major chemical producers of the country, India is the biggest market for them. Kazargode is down in the south of the country,away from the capital and metros does that mean the people out there are not humane they dont have there rights, or what...??

    Over the 10 years UPA, hasn't provided any compensation package, not yet rehabilitated

    4.Endosulfan is a major pesticide used for cashew plantations, Govt got a export of 2500 crore cashew nut export every year. If govt act against Endosulfan it will effect the export Business .

    5.M.S Swaminathan father of Green revolution in India, regrets his acts to introduce Chemicals in the agricultural flied. He laments on it now in 2011, he urging people to go back to the nature friendly agricultural pattern.

    6.Watch the Malayalam News channel indiavision website you will get the video and report on the Endosulfan victims of Tamil Nadu.

    It is a remote place, no one has extended a helping hand toward them, In kerala since the media are strong and people are keen to know whats happening around.That's how the menace of Endosulfan came out to the open, other wise it would have been buried in the darkness.

    There will still more places in India were you can find the victims.

    7.Food security is important as national security for the country, i saw some statements if Endosulfan is banned people will die of hunger.

    You all will be well remembering the rotten food grains in Punjab, which grabbed national attention.

    A govt concerned over food security should use the available resources effectively to maintain food security rather than Expecting a pesticide to bring about the food security in your country.

    8.If 81 countries across the globe banned this seeing the effects of Endosulfan in Kerala, Why UPA is still making studies. Our prime minister may not be a part of the scams, but he is a silent partner of every crime in the govt level.

    I dont know how can you justify Mr Jayram ramesh statement, asking for more proofs from different parts of the country

    No wonder UPA, not taking any decisions, because most of the decisions concerning the country are not made in Indian parliament.

    Take the case of Nuclear power plant at Jaythapur, the world is saying no to nuclear power, a country like were 70% of water resources are unused for production of power, they want nuclear power to produce electricity, it will only 0.7 % total energy that scarcity faced by India, cost much higher.

    World most pollutant nuclear power plants are in India, still gong for more

  • #196847
    @ All,

    Sorry to late attend all of you guys. Thanks for the Vandana mam who give a decent description of the Endosulfan, I was not aware about this previously but now after searching a lot over the net I am here to talk to you all about the subject.

    According to my research about the topic I would like to say that ICMR should test the Endosulfan once again, if this insecticide is not suitable then only it should be banned.

    There are two types of people who are against the ban of the Endosulfan(insecticide) and who are in favor of the removal of this ban. We will discuss all the thing one by one.

    Endosulfan should be banned?

    1. According to society people Endosulfan should be banned because this insecticide will be a big problem for India in future.

    2. Cancer is the increasing problem across all over the Asian countries and Endosulfan causes Cancer, to remove the bad effect of Endosulfan it should not be used in the future.

    3. Crops are required by every human beings because everybody needs food for the survival, if birds will eat these infected crops then infection can be transferee from crop to bird or other animals, it will effect humans indirectly because human is the only animal who can eat both Veg and Non-veg items.

    As told by Nandana mam it also effects the unborn child also so according to me it should be banned.

    Endosulfan should not be banned
    Some of the people thought that this insecticide should not be banned because making of these insecticides in the factories giving food to many poor people, if the production will stop then all the poor people will have to struggle for their existence. I am also giving some points why people are against this ban.

    1. This is happening only in few states of the country, not the whole country.

    2. Poor people are maximum illiterate so they don't know the harmful effects of this insecticide, Endosulfan is cheaper than all other insecticides so poor people used this from many years, if the ban will continue on Endosulfan then farmers will be effected maximum. So according to the farmers Endosulfan should not be banned.

    3. Scientists should make an alternative for the problem, there must be some substance in the production of the Endosulfan is harmful so scientists should search for the replacement of this product.

    With Regards,
    Kritika

  • #196965
    I think that I am too late in entering the discussion on this interesting topic. It is definitely a pity on behalf of our farmers that they play with the health of the citizens of our country just to earn meager profits. Let me enlighten you about some of the facts of Endosulfan about which I think most of the members are aware.

    What is endosulfan?


    Endosulfan is basically a pesticide that is used in agriculture to kill pests such as beetles, worms, aphids and hoppers. It is a wide spectrum pesticide as it kills not only the target insects but also beneficial ones. It has been banned in almost all the countries of the world except a few developing nations such as India and China. It contains chlorine and is organic in nature. After the Stockholm conference, the countries decided to put a ban on this insecticide due to its adverse impacts in human healths as well as environment.

    Harmful impacts of the endosulfan on human health


    There are various impacts of endosulfan on human health:

  • Carcinogenic: I think that this point itself is enough to strike terror in your heart and may prompt you to join the movement against this poison. However, there is one good news that the probability of cancer in humans in highly less as compares to the animals. Endosulfan is known to cause breasts cancer in females.

  • Hormone de-regulator: Yes, th endosulfan disrupts the normal hormonal circulation in humans and may affect the endocrine glands such as the pituitary glands, thyroid glands and others. It may either cause hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. In the former case, the level of thyroid gland in human being decrease while in the latter it increase to dangerous levels. Endosulfan also affects the levels of estrogen.

  • Damages to the reproductive system: It has been experimentally roved that higher and lethal doses of endosulfan intake may affect the levels of sex hormones such as testosterone and sertoli cells. It results in delay in puberty onset in boys and girls. Not only this, there are very high risks of impotency and infertility where the persons are continuously exposed to its doses. The pregnant women are much more likely to give birth to the children with birth defects such as children suffering from Autism.

  • Other impacts: It is also been proved that endosulfan causes skin infections such as burning sensation, rashes and permanent brain damage. The levels of toxic chemicals in this pesticide is very high.

    Citing all these reasons, I strongly feel that the endosulfan must be banned and the government and the research agencies must try and develop alternatives means of raising the agricultural productivity. I assure that I shall bring some alternatives to the chemical, endosulfan so that one is aware of the means to raise the production without playing with the health of the people.

    With regards,
    Vivek
    ISC Editor.
    Studyvillage editor.

    A group of donkey led by a lion can defeat a group of lion led by a donkey.

  • #196966
    There is no doubt that Endosulfan is a harmful insecticide. It has been scientifically proved too. Many states in India are using this insecticide to protect their crops against pests. But this has done more bad to the people than good. People who have come in contact with it either directly or through its presence in food have been suffering for years. Endosulfan is not the only insecticide available out there. There are many alternatives but the farmers prefer to use Endosulfan because it is inexpensive and easy to use. The farmers should be educated about the ill effects of Endosulfan and encourage them to use harmless insecticides for their crops.
    I feel Endosulfan should be banned.

  • #196993
    Endosulfan is a very poisonous substance. It is used as a pesticide. Fact is that it is affecting humans. Endosulfan is capable to cause mutation. Wide use of endosulfan is continuing even now. Greedy men are behind this. Kids with disfigured organs wets our eyes. Call for ban has been continuing for years. But it is not in action. A big area is full of victims. Authorities acting are blind to see their condition. In each election their would be offers. But after election no one to help them. Defects will be passed through generations. They will curse us. Fortune hunters are making money. Another fact is not remembered by us. Those who consume food items in which this deadly poison applied will suffer more. It is like a slow poison. Imagine a situation where one fine day we are unable to move when we wake up. Impact will be much more than our imaginations. cancer is the most dangerous disease that we know. Remember new diseases will arise due to this poison. That time it will be too late. So we should ban endosulfan. End endosulfan which ends life.
    Think before act.

  • #196995
    I agree whole-heartedly with Mr.Akshay, Ms.Asha and Ms.Julie in saying that the Indian government's first priority should be urgently banning the use of endosulfan. Alternatives and substitutes will automatically follow. If we do not ban Endosulfan immediately and wait for invention of cheaper alternatives, then by that time, most of our farming communities will be left helpless and crippled. Shouldn't the citizens' lives be more important to a country than the economic benefits derived from some life-threatening pesticide?

    And as to Mr.Chakravarthy's observations, it is true that Kasargod is not the sole victim to Endosulfan. All Indian states are using endosulfan for good crop-yields. But yes, only the issues in Kasargod received public support and attention. Even then, we have heard another episode on the same issue in the state of Punjab, as pointed by Ms.Nandana. As general public, we are not aware of the scientific consequences endosulfan can have on nature and on us. But even then, after such a widespread havoc from Kerala, is it advisable to trust endosulfan blindly and rely on it? I vote for a NO.

    Let us just hope that the Indian government realizes the worries and anxieties of the people. For the greater good of tomorrow, endosulfan must be banned today.

  • #197017
    Some time back I read an article where one of the good features of endosulfan as stated by the Indian govt. is that is safe for bees, which are a source of pollination & pollination is important for crops. My view is: surely the life of a human is more important than that of bees! What's more, surely there are other ways to attract bees for pollination and not depend solely on insecticides containing endosulfan.

    It is also irrelevant whether the dangerous effects of endosulfan are confined to one or two States and not to the whole country. Are the residents of the affected States unimportant?! How can the Govt. take such a callous attitude? Why don't they check out the reasons why a majority of countries have banned endosulfan? That is, they can check out the research studies conducted in these countries if they are not convinced about the dangers of endosulfan. Only 3 out of more than a score of countries are opposing the ban so obviously it is not a one-off study restricted to a small village in Kerla or Punjab or elsewhere.

    Furthermore, has the Indian Govt. bothered to check out what is the treatment to deal with those affected by endosulfan poisoning? Are they going to set up medical centers for the affected people? Or are they only bothered about taking a stand for the sake of image-enhancing at the Stockholm convention?

    When you make a commitment, you create hope. When you keep a commitment you create trust! ~ John C. Maxwell

  • #197018
    Feeling happy because everyone agrees that endosulfan should be banned. Ban of endosulfan is lagging. Real condition of people in our Kerala is pitiable. Other states are not complaining. I guess the reason may be illiteracy. Endosulfan was applied in a rural area of Kasargod district. People in that area understood the cause for unnatural births and diseases after few years. Same way in near future need for ban of Endosulfan will arise. Let us hope that this deadly poison will be banned in near future. Even then damage could not be repaired. Those who lost their lives are not compensated. Effect will be seen in generations to come. Immediate action is required to reduce impact.
    Think before act.

  • #197028
    Dear Chakravathi,

    We cannot compare the cost of petrol and cost of an alternative to endosulfan because the use of two commodities is entirely different. People do not die if they use or don't use petrol, but people are facing deaths and deformities and diseases if the use of endosulfan is not stopped forthwith by banning it. We can just imagine how much devastation this poisonous substance must have already caused in the countries where it is in use. That is why it is banned in over 70 countries and people in many countries like ours are fighting for its global ban. India is the largest producer of this pesticide. And it is pertinent to say that it should have banned first in our country. Now what alternative the government should use or provide subsidies, it is government's duty to think. Moreover, its use is mostly limited to Kerala and Karnataka and the use of alternative to be subsidized to a smaller group of farmers should stand in the way of farmers. To do anything by the government where the vested interests of some influential people are involved who will be directly affected needs a strong political will. There is lobby of wealthy plantation owners who may be affected by the and and hence dilly-dallying by the central government.

    "Teaching is my passion and sharing knowledge is my motto"
    Regards,
    Sukhdev Singh
    Lead Editor Forums Section

  • #197045
    Hi all,
    Indian politicians are not taking any decision as such on the status of this harmful insecticide waiting uselessly for another report while what they fail to understand is the condition of farmers in kerela and around and what else can be expected from them if they go against the decisions of 81 other much developed and advanced nations.
    This delay maybe causing alot of damage in many other parts of the country too. Some of you are saying that only Kerela's case has come in front while this insecticide is used everywhere but I think it depends upon the many factors and also if the sufferers are not from a particular village or district, they won't be able to relate their problems with this insecticide and this may also be a governing factor in this situation.

    Even if other states have not complained, it doesn't mean that we wait for others also to join this death race while doing absolutely nothing and putting thousands of lives at bay.
    Its an urgent issue and if politicians will sit idle doing nothing at all, people are sure to continue to suffer and then the govt only will be blamed for any further harm of lives.

    Regards
    Akshay
    Pay no heed to those who talk behind your back, it simply means that you are two steps ahead !

  • #197056
    If there has been no reporting of massive deaths or deformities from other areas in India that is no reason to say that endosulfan is not the culprit in Kasargod and parts of Karnataka.Aerial spraying for decades have caused the pesticide to become persistent in Kasargod's environment and may be people are being affected in other parts too but it may still be awaiting attention since vegetables and fruit contamination shall affect all though the intensity of the deletrious effect may be low.

    The government should take immediate measures to ban endosulfan and to rehabilitate the affected people along with their proper treatment and also make sure that proper study in all rural areas of the country is made to know if people are suffering due to endosulfan elsewhere too.

  • #197070
    @ Akshay Mahajan
    Most of the use of the endosulfan is made only for vegetables and plantation crops like the Cashew nut plantations in Kerala and Karnataka. I hardly find its use on rice and wheat which are the main crops in India. Since the plantations of the type is mostly grown in Kerala and Karnataka, so the voices against its use are being raised from Kerala only.

    "Teaching is my passion and sharing knowledge is my motto"
    Regards,
    Sukhdev Singh
    Lead Editor Forums Section

  • #197071
    Those who stand against the ban on endosulfan do not realise that several alternative methods are there to prevent pests and insects.Govts must try to sort out indegenous biological methods to control harmful pests.A total elimination of pesticides and chemicals in farming is to be aimed at.
    The Pesticides Action Network(PAN)International, Germany has published a field guide on 'how to grow crops without endosulfan'.It suggests the following methods as alternatives to endosulfan.
    1.Biological methods
    2.cultural and physical methods
    3.use of beneficial insects and plants
    4.use of home made solutions

    Non Pesticidal Management(NPM)

    This is a a system formulated by the farmers of Enabavi in AP.Endosulfan was their widely used pesticide on almost all crops earlier. But when they succesfully introduced NPM, they tried to prevent the incidence of pests rather than to eliminate pests through logical and scientific intervention.They proved that non pesticidal management was sustainable and cost effective than 'chemical intensive farming'
    This is an era of studies and researches in agricultural methods and cultivation techniques. Agriculture is the basis of our living. Then why govts fail to take necessary action to promote organic and biological farming methods?
    Kerala witnesses the plight of a group of people who are forced to lead a pathetic life.We are more aware of the fact that the socio-economic cost of endosulfan outweighs all other costs due to the ban on endosulfan.

  • #197084
    Endosulfan should definitely be banned as it is not only harmful for the human beings but also for the environment in the long run. Here are some of the ways by which the endosulfan is harmful for the environment.

    Harmful impacts of endosulfan on the environment

    :
    I have listed some of the harmful impacts of endosulfan on the environment :

  • Bio-magnification: I do not know how many of the member are aware of this term. Bio-magnification states that the levels or the amount of the dangerous chemicals prevent in a food chain keeps on increasing at each trophic levels and the organisms at the highest trophic level is the worst sufferers. You shall be terrified to know that the organisms at the g=highest trophic level in man. Thus, the dangerous chemicals keep on accumulating at each organism and may result in his death.

  • Non-biodegradable: As because, every chemical pesticides are non-biodegradable in nature, they stay ion the environment for a long time and affects thew physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil.

  • Broad spectrum pesticide: As because, endosulfan is a broad spectrum pesticide, it kills not only the target or the harmful insects and microbes re killed but also the useful microbes such as the symbiotic bacteria and nitrogen fixing bacteria.

  • Capacity to travel long distances: Endosulfan can easily be carried away by wind and water to long distances and in other sensitive ecosystems. Thus, it affects not only a specific area but a very large part of the state.

  • Pollute groundwater: Endosulfan has a very high capacity to percolate in the groundwater and thus pollute it. Also, it does not allow the further rainwater to percolate in the ground if it accumulates in the top layer of the soil.

    However, there are various issues attached to the removal of this harmful pesticides that makes is think thousands times before the government can take steps to ban it completely.

    Reasons why endosulfan cannot be banned easily


  • The government argues that the pesticide is very cheap as compared to other pesticides such as the organic pesticides. Most of the farmers in our country are poor and cannot afford the pesticides that are less harmful or organic in nature. Also, the government cannot afford to grant heavy subsidies on the pesticides when almost 60% of our population depends directly or indirectly on agriculture.

  • Today, India is facing a huge problem of population explosion and it is difficult to provide food to all and ensure food security for all. Agricultural production can be increased by increasing the land under cultivation but seeing the current shortage of land, it is almost a difficult step. Hence, the only solution is to to make extensive use of the existing land by increased use of pesticides and fertilizers.

  • Moreover, the various effects of endosulfan on human healths as well as environment are not proved with substantial arguments and research paper. These are only the probable effects that has been little proved. Hence, there should not be any scope for its removal until the agencies come out with stronger evidences to support their stanch.

    I think these are the two basic reasons for arguments for endosulfan but I think that these are not sufficient to support it.We need to think of better alternatives and I think in my next response, I can provide the members with some of the alternative means.

    With regards,
    Vivek
    ISC Editor.
    Studyvillage editor.

    A group of donkey led by a lion can defeat a group of lion led by a donkey.

  • #197098
    Akshay

    That is what i said. Many people including all of us are suffering from endosulfan. We all are consuming vegetables which may contaminated with this deadly poison. In near future we may also fall ill. That time we may not even guess that it is due to endosulfan. That is what is happening. People understood the fact slowly. Apart from consumption of vegetables indirectly it may enter our body. Water that we are drinking from wells may contain endosulfan. If we think like this we realize the fact that all most all people are affected. But impact is recessive. After a few years new diseases may develop. No way endusulfan can be justified. Life is more important than anything. Any thing which disturbs or destructs life should be avoided. Our polluted environment itself is a hell for us. In various ways we are suffering. What will happen if we add to it like this?

    Think before act.

  • #197176
    @ Asha Kurian madam,

    Solution should give answer to the problems. But, it should not rake up new problems. Banning Endosulfan is good thing, but bad solution. You said you live in Kerala. Please enlighten me why ban was revoked and why Endosulfan is smuggled. Why only this situation in Kerala and Daksin Kannada, why not there is a movement in Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, why not in all over the India. I will give my first hand knowledge.

    Why is Endosulfan effect in few areas?

    Human negligence: The chemical pesticides are to be handled carefully. They should not be used indiscriminately. In Kelara's Kasargod, it is used indiscriminately. Fertiliser through aerial routes is dangerous for any chemical usage. Second thing is that it should not be mixed with canal waters. Farmers due to ignorance they clean their hands filled with chemicals and mixes and throws the used cans of chemical pesticides without dumping and when they have food, sometimes they consume the same water. These are the reasons which made it limited to few areas. This should not be attributed to Endosulfan, but it should be given responsibility for every chemical.

    Guntur Mirchi Vs Kasargod Cashew:

    Guntur mirchi is famous all around India and world. It exports its mirchi (chillies) to European countries and USA. For this, farmers use Endosulfan extensively. So many people live in the area. In Guntur, there is mirchi yard which is the biggest one in Asia. So, you can know that the Rome is not built in a day. They have been using this pesticide from a long back as in Kasargod. Here, no cases are reported until now. Its chillies are exported to most of the big countries. Why? That is why government is not able to decide. Human negligence cannot be attributed to a chemical.

    @Vivek: Thank you for coming with bad effects of Endosulfan. Actually they are not only the effects of Endosulfan, but also for every chemical pesticide. So, let us ask to ban all chemical pesticides rather than Endosulfan only after making perfect alternatives.

    @Sukhdev sir,

    Thank you for coming with good explanations. I am learning more from you.

    @Nandana:

    You are so enthusiastic to bring alternatives also. I appreciate you for this as you have a bit forward than others. But, as Indian farmers are poor and illiterates, they cannot have this knowledge. Even though they come up, there are so many things which can affect the methods you have provided. One of the best, but not effective for time being is biofertilisers. To know more about biofertilisers visit Biofertilisers uses and limitations in Indian agriculture

    @ Who are saying often it is banned in most of the countries?

    Endosulfan is banned in most of the countries. USA is still using endosulfan and decided to phase out. I am also asking not to ban but having perfect and sustainable pesticide, let us phase out. Does USA have alternative? Here, we have to know one thing; tropical areas are abundant of pests as it is given opportunity to grow them well. Cold countries will not have such pests we have. They are different. For them, as time grows, they have alternatives. We, Indians are intelligent and our pests are stubborn, we could not find an alternative as we thought that we have alternative i.e. endosulfan. Now, those country pesticide companies want to rub their alternatives on the face of Indian farmers. So, they are funding the programmes to ban the Endosulfan. You know, India and China are not ready to ban them because they know well that these companies want to colonise their agriculture fields. You might have known about terminator seed which is produced by a foreign company.

    "Look at ants and learn"

  • #197220
    Any person who happen to visit Kasaragod once cannot rule out the harms done by endosulfan. If endosulfan is not the culprit, authorities are bound to prove it doubtlessly.

    It is true that organic or biological methods of farming may not be so productive and sufficient to feed the vast population of India.Not only that farmers undertake farming occupation for their living and not for social service. This itself has made them greedy to use more chemical intensive methods. They always aim to make profit. They are not worried about the impact these fertilisers would make on the consumers of their produce.

    It is also true that small scale or medium level cultivators do not resort to extensive use of poisonous pesticides such as endosulfan.Their yield is never equivallent to those who adopt fertlixer intensive farming.They always complain of the huge loss they incur.here comes the relevance of the role and vision of a 'welfare state'.How can a state ignore the social as well as health costs, the unquantifiable environmental costs, the loss of bio diversity etc due to the continued use of harmful pesticides?

    The large scale use of fertlisers are mainly by hi-tech farmers and agencies.They are like business people.They are not bound to incur losses in farming.In such a circumstance it is the duty of the state to encourage and develop less harmful methods of cultivation.

    More studies and researches are to be encouraged. More budget allocation is to be made for the agricultural sector so thatmore subsidies can be provided to those who opt for bio farming. Agricullture is to be made as significant as any other profession. More educated youth are to be brought into the farming sector. Farming is to be made more charming by giving ample facilities and finance to conduct experiments, researches and training.

  • #197259
    Endosulfan is a very poisonous pesticide.It will genetically affects the human beings.I don't know why should India hesitate to ban this harmful pesticide.It will affect the nature,human beings and the next generation also.So India should ban endosulfan.
    "With Money You Can Buy a House, But Not a Home.
    With Money You Can Buy a Clock, But Not Time.
    With Money You Can Buy a Bed, But Not Sleep.
    With Money You Can Buy a Book, But Not Knowledge.
    With Money You Can Buy Blood, But Not Life."

    Ban-Endosulfan.docx

    Delete Attachment

  • #197277
    While the Endosulfan-ban issue receives a unanimous support worldwide, I would also like to throw light upon the other side of the coin. But let me make the point clear that the consequences of endosulfan-ban can in no way be matched with the terrible impact endosulfan has created upon us through these years.

    Now, here is a look upon how the endosulfan-ban may affect the nation's food security.
    1.If the Stockholm international convention issues a permanent ban on endosulfan, the food supplies and crop-harvests of millions of farmers will be at stake.

    2.Food costs, which are already high and unaffordable to the poor, will escalate further up. Alternative pesticides are several times costly than endosulfan and the possibilities to use them are limited.

    3.The livelihoods of the farmers and the future of agriculture may face risks.

    4.No pesticide can be matched with endosulfan for its unique mode of action on the pesticides. Endosulfan is the only one pesticide which can get rid of a wide range of pests and insects that affect the crops.

    Now, a few myths about Endosulfan:

    * Endosulfan has the image of being a carcinogen (a cancer-causing agent). But IARC (International agence for research on cancer) has confirmed that endosulfan doesnot act as a carcinogen.

    * Endosulfan is claimed to be harmful to the endocrine system. But as per researches and studies held worldwide, endosulfan does not cause gene mutation or fertility problems.

    The endosulfan ban may question our country's food security. But does this imply that endosulfan should not be banned? Definitely NO. Whatever be the benefits of endosulfan, it is not safe to rely upon this pesticide for our food-security. Even the crop-harvests yielded from endosulfan may be identified as poisonous in future. It is always safe to depend upon the traditional and biological pesticides. Endosulfan may not be toxic if used in the right methods and proportions. But even then, the slightest mistake in the use of endosulfan may cause drastic happenings.

    Banning endosulfan may cause food-insecurity. But it is doubtless that switching to alternative pesticides can restore food security. The duty of the government at this point of time is to introduce new and safer pesticides. Endosulfan is the not the sole panacea to the country's food-supply problems. The government's fist priority should be the health and life of the citizens. To ensure safety of farmers as well as the consumers, endosulfan needs an immediate ban.

  • #197312
    Last night I watched a special report on Endosulfan in a news channel and I was shocked to find out that about 70 cancer patients from Bhatinda and neighbouring areas travel to Bikaner everyday for treatment.The train by which they travel has been given the eponym of 'cancer express'.Punjab has been using endosulfan extensively and this cancer blast is attributed to endosulfan by fact finding groups.
    So,if anyone says why only Kerala or parts of South India this is the answer.

    People have sold their properties,farmlands for treatment.Their children have no future.Mr.Chakravarthy mentioned of hunger due to pesticide ban but it has been noted by experts that agricultural productivity is on the decline even though pesticide and fertiliser usage has increased.

    Endosulfan or any other chemical for that matter was introduced for the benefit of farmers and agriculture on the whole but if it is on a killing spree would'nt it be wise to abandon it immediately.

  • #197319
    @Adwaith
    There is no clarity in your response. You said you are going to give another side and used the word "myths". Do you say those 6 points are myths regarding Endosulfan or what? I request you to clarify.

    @Julie Jha

    I have mentioned that too in my previous responses. The mistakes of humans should not be attributed to chemical pesticides. Chemical pesticides are dangerous. We have to utilise them carefully. You have gas in your house. Is not it dangerous? We have dangerous things around. If it is not endosulfan, some other chemical harms if you are not careful. I live in the area where endosulfan is utilised for more than 30 years. You can google the city name "Guntur". You can know what the speciality of Guntur is. This area consists of Asia's biggest Mirchi(Chillies) yard. I am not saying these words through watching or looking at newspaper. I have the first hand knowledge. That is why I am speaking. (Please read my previous posts.)

    Kerala might have got the situation through negligence on the part of the owners. If any chemical is sprayed like that as did in Kerala, it would bring the same position. These chemicals should not be mixed with canal water. If there happens, why not kerala, why not Andhra, everywhere it seems. There is human negligence. That should be curbed. I am saying to ban all chemical pesticides and fertilisers, but first provide alternative. Julie Jha madam, I say that I prefer to fight a big demon rather than 50 small demons at the same time. This is what applied to Endosulfan ban. You go to another 50 small dangerous ones. This is not good solution. First, provide alternative, then people also leave them without the ban.

    "Look at ants and learn"

  • #197330
    @Vivek

    I am totally agree with you that Endosulfan also leads to the abnormal hormonal change. Endosulfan also harmful for the child growth, it also inhibits the mental and physical growth of the people.

    @Julie
    Not only in few news channels are showing a special report on various programs about the Endosulfan. Cancer from Endosulfan insecticide is the common and a vital disease caused by the Endosulfan.

    With Regards,
    Kritika

  • #197354
    I think that this debate is futile if none of the members comes up with any concrete solutions to the problem. I have tried and listed some of the basic steps that can be taken to increase our agricultural output without farmers having to use the chemical fertilizers and pesticides that is both harmful for us as well as the environment.

    Substitutes for endosulfan


  • Using degradable insecticides like organic phosphates. These are derived from the oil and fats of animals and dead plants. These are actually very expensive and only rich farmers can support these types of pesticides.

  • We must use pesticides that exist only for a short period of time in the soil and then degrade easily by microbes. Such pestiicdes do not harm the environment at least.

  • Using biological control methods instead of pesticides. For example, beetles can be used to control weeds and amphids that they eat with much delight.

  • Using organic pestiicdes such as bio-neem and bio-2001 that do not stick to the skins of the fruits and the vegetables and at the same time reduces our effort to wash them.

    Alternatively, we can use other proper means of farming to increase our agricultural production so that we have to make the minimum use of these pesticides and fertilizers.

    Methods to increase the agricultural production without using chemical pesticides and fertilizers


    Here are some of the ways to increase agricultural output without using chemicals:

  • Farmyard manure:From the beginning of agriculture, the utilization of farm wastes, rotten by means of urine and dung of animals has been the principle method of replenishing soil losses. It is a very good way of replenishing soil fertility.

  • Green manuring: In agriculture, green manure is a type of cover crop grown primarily to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil. Such crops and the weeds are kept only for a fixed period of time after which they are incorporated into the soil.

  • Compost: Compost is a biological process of conservation of organic matter of refuse to a usable stable material. A good mix of of browns and greens is the best nutritional balance for the microbes.

  • Bio-fertilizers : Bio-fertilizers is a cent percent organic fertilizer that is prepared from the microbes such as the bacteria and fungi. The microbes display a symbiotic relationships with the crops to which they supply nutrients and also derives nutrients from them.

    For more details on the above topic, please visit:Methods for sustainable agriculture.

    As most of the members have reported that it is mostly the cashew plantations that are used for spraying endosulfan, I think that there is still the need and scope for research and development in this field to develop proper alternatives for endosulfan. If we want quick results, we can use the better and safe alternatives that are chemical in nature but at the same time less harmful for the environment.

    With regards,
    Vivek
    ISC Editor.
    Studyvillage editor.

    A group of donkey led by a lion can defeat a group of lion led by a donkey.

  • #197359
    Hi,
    @Chakravarthi,
    I agree with your views but the GD is based upon the stand of indian govt regarding the use of endosulfan not about what it should do. The major question is is indian govt's stand on endosulfan justified because we all know that endosulfan should be surely banned but all of us are revolving around a different but linked question of banning endosulfan.
    We know that the harmful effects of endosulfan easily over shadow its benefits and so there is no question about carrying on with such a disastrous chemical.
    I am not contradicting your views, all I want to say is that Indian govt should agree to banning endosulfan because present conditions don't seem like supporting indian govt's dislike for endosulfan and if they don't want to ban it, the question of finding an alternative will be miles ahead.
    Hope you got what I wanted to convey.
    If Indian govt decides to ban it, it won't be a day's task thereby looking for a better option will be the first preference of our scientists.

    Regards
    Akshay
    Pay no heed to those who talk behind your back, it simply means that you are two steps ahead !

  • #197365
    @ Akshay Mahajan

    India opposed the ban on Endosulfan. If you see the replies before me, all said there should be immediate ban. As it is group discussion, I have supported their cause with a bit limitation to allow government provide an alternative and later ban can be imposed. My posts are directly attached to given topic. Few raised questions, I had given them responses. If you can read them in order, you can understand. Other wise it seems a bit diversion.

    What government should do is also a part, in my view. Without it, this group discussion has no meaning. To say yes or no, we can have a poll rather than group discussion.

    "Look at ants and learn"

  • #197369
    I said again and again that there is no use to argue on the fact that endosulfan should be imposed unless we come out with certain solutions and suggestions. It is a fact the neither the farmers nor the government is going to ban the endosulfan unless they are able to find some alternatives to endosulfan. Also, the alternative must have several qualities before it can be accepted as an alternative.

    Qualities that an alternative to endosulfan must possess


  • Firstly, it should be such that it does not hamper the physical and chemical properties of the soil in the short run as there is no pesticide that works without affecting the natural properties of the soil.

  • It must not affect the production. The totral quantity of output must remain the same or increase if possible as we cannot afford to provide food insecurity to the people.

  • It should be cheaper and easily available. The raw materials required for its manufacturer must be reprehensible and widely available.

  • It should be capable of using against a wide range of worms and pests and not against a specific type of pest only.

  • Above all, it should not be bulky and heavy. It should be light and must possess the capacity of storage in ordinary conditions so that the transportation become easy.

    I urge the members to come up with certain alternatives that have at least few of these characteristics.

    With regards,
    Vivek
    ISC Editor.
    Studyvillage editor.

    A group of donkey led by a lion can defeat a group of lion led by a donkey.

  • #197397
    It has come to knowledge that Maharashtra and Gujarat government want to use endosulfan in their states. It is also thought that the central government is not favour of taking a drastic step to ban this insecticide since the central government is alleged to be favouring the endosulfan producing countries. But the fear of Kerala government is that if it is allowed to use in any of the states in the country, then it may be smuggled into Kerala in spite of its ban by the state government. Since agriculture is a state subject, it is quite likely that the state governments of Maharashtra and Gujarat may allow its use. In that case a ban in Kerala will become meaningless as it may be smuggled into Kerala. This is the reason the Kerala government is pressuring the central to ban endosulfan on a national scale.
    "Teaching is my passion and sharing knowledge is my motto"
    Regards,
    Sukhdev Singh
    Lead Editor Forums Section

  • #197414
    Endosulfan also cause cancer. I happen to see few cancer patients in media. Felt so sad. Are people not seeing them? If what sukhdev singh has told happens then it will be a disastrous. Kerala media is trying to create an anti endosulfan attitude in people. Even film organization FEFCA came up with advertisement. News papers have joined with us. All those activities will be wasted if smuggling of endosulfan starts. Excise department should be vigilant now itself. Corruption in excise department will be utilized by them. Consequences will be more worse. Central government is passive in taking a quick action. People will respond to this in next election. Those who are supporting this are also indirectly suffering or they will. Activities in Kerala is a model for other states. Forgetting all disparities parties have joined together against endosulfan.
    Think before act.

  • #197430
    @ Vivek chowdhury
    You did not mention an important point for which endosulfan is considered as the dangerous pesticide.
    You have pointed so many factors which are essential for an alternative to endosulfan. But you missed an important point regarding the health of human beings. Let me clear it.
    1.Pesticides should not cause any inhalation problems.
    2. Pesticides should not be toxic to human beings.
    3. Pesticides should not penetrate through the human skin.
    4. Pesticides should not spread from the area where it is applied especially by means of air.

    Endosulfan donot meet these points. What is the need of a toxic chemical ( which is extremely dangerous to human beings)in plantations? Neglecting the health of human beings is not good for a government which rules a developing country like India. Endosulfan is included in the category of pesticides which remain in the environment for a long time. So endosulfan should be banned.

    I have already given my suggestions in the replies mentioned above. Give our scientists the option to find an alternative for endosulfan. It is the duty of our India government to encourage such researches in our country. The main problem in our country is that they are not encouraging scientists. So in simple terms we can say that scientists are going out for better work & salary. This is the problem & can we prevent them from going out & helping other countries in researches?.

    @ Chakravarthi
    You said that only Kerala & Karnataka are demanding the ban of endosulfan. This is because Kerala & Karnataka have faced the dangerous situations of endosulfan so far. Eventhough there are other cashew nut plantations in Kerala, Endosulfan was used only in kasargode. The studies conducted by a team which was sent earlier by India government have given the report that the drastic situations in kasargode was mainly due to endosulfan. Though the India government have a bad report on endosulfan, they are demanding again a study in kasargode. What is the need of it? There may be minor problems in other states also, but they are not coming into light may be due to the pressure of pesticide lobby. Don't tell that farmers are misusing this pesticide. Majority of the countries in the world have banned endosulfan or they have taken several methods to ban it. But our country has not started any measures.

    Now it is time for India to raise their voice for the bann of endosulfan. Ministers are elected by the people of India.So they should prove that they are working for the people & not for money. Otherwise toxicity of this pesticide may affect large number of people in our country.

    Regards
    Asha

  • #197434
    Hello everybody

    It high time to think of banning Endosulfan rather still debating over
    what is endosulfan......how it effect man..if you wannu see the effects just visit Kazargode Once, you will require no further proof

    It's absurd to say that Endosulfan is the one pesticide that ensure food security to the country, thousands are being killed out there and this will spread to the coming generations as well.

    I dont know what wrong the people of the country have done to Mr Mnmohan singh other than voting congress Party to power, i dont know how long he will dance to the tunes of others,

    India is in need of real leader with guts to take India forward with the wishes of people, not the corporates

  • #197458
    On the one hand Kerala Govt is insisting for the ban on Endosulfan and even called for a total protest on 29th of this month.

    On the other hand the central govt is not ready to heed to the request of the Kerala Govt.

    It is the people who are going to suffer with the adamant attitude of the both the govts.

    K Mohan
    'Idhuvum Kadandhu Pogum "
    Even this challenging situation would ease

  • #197524
    @Asha,
    Since I already mentioned about the ill effects of pesticides especially endosulfan in human as well as environment, it is obvious that I am demanding a pesticide that is completely safe. I think that the government shall not take any initiative in this regard unless we come out again with some sort of protests with all the citizens and the international bodies joining us.
    If we can force the government to pass the Jan Lokpal bill, we can do it for banning endosulfan too.

    Possible ways by which we can help in the abolition of endosulfan


  • Since endosulfan is a global issue, it is the responsibility of international bodies like IUCN, UNO, IPCC and others to come out with some concrete reports on the ill-effects of endosulfan and pressurize the Indian government to take stern measures against endosulfan.

  • The citizens can use their PIL i.e. Public interest litigation to file suit against the extensive use of endosulfan on cashew plantations in Kerala.

  • Another possible way is to boycott the cashew from Kerala if they are found to be infected with endosulfan. I know that it requires a great deal of knowledge on part of the consumers to identify such fruits and vegetables but a little awareness shall help a lot.

  • We can urge the various NGO to come out with funding for the farmers so that they have the required capital to buy better pesticides and fertilizers instead of using endosulfan.

  • Government of India has several schemes like Kisan Credit cards and other programs for the farmers such as regional rural banks, co-operative banks and other land reform schemes. The farmers must use such schemes implemented by the government to obtain their required inputs from the market.
    With regards,
    Vivek
    ISC Editor.
    Studyvillage editor.

    A group of donkey led by a lion can defeat a group of lion led by a donkey.

  • #197534
    Strike on 29th April by Kerala government is useless. It will affect common people adversely. Any action in a democratic system is effective only if state government and central government goes on smoothly and unitedly. Here contradictory opinions are seen. What is the use? Administration second UPA government was not as good as previous one as far as kerala is concerned. Both governments are criticizing each other. Ban of Endusulfan will be delayed until the change of government. In next election UDF will use endosulfan issue in election. Parties want authority. Not welfare of people.
    Think before act.

  • #197620
    Amid heated discussions regarding the endosulfan issues in India, a shocking revelation that endosulfan is affecting the state of Haryana too is fast spreading. So, now, it has been proved that endosulfan is a bane to the whole nation. It's effects are not limited to just one or two states.

    Many famous personalities and organizations are raising their voices against endosulfan. Even a state-wide protest hartal is proposed on 29th April in the state of Kerala. As Shashi Tharoor rightly tweeted, the ban on endosulfan should come first, as 'we cannot play with lives'. Even when the Endosulfan-ban has received a nation-wide support, why does the Indian government keep demanding further irrelevant researches and proofs?

    There is a world wide consensus on endosulfan ban. Even then, India rules out the need for a total ban. This approach from the government seems really mysterious.

  • #197626
    @ Mr. Chakravarthi
    I have edited my last response as per your request. Hope you got my point now. I had just stated a few concerns which are associated with the nation-wide endosulfan ban.

    Even though the Kerala state government has declared a state hartal against endosulfan, the central government's stand on the issue does not seem to change. In fear of giving birth to crippled babies, the women of affected regions are aborting their pregnancies. Isn't this enough reason for the Indian Government to ban endosulfan from our country?

    And regarding the question of alternatives, I would say a total ban of endosulfan will automatically be followed by invention of new pesticides. As long as a much cheaper, efficient pesticide be available in the markets, how many of our farmers will opt for biological pesticides? In fact, endosulfan may be shadowing other biological pesticides and hindering the possibilities of their use. Let the poison be banned and our farming sector will flourish with traditional and biological pesticides which are far better than endosulfan.

  • #197627
    Stockholm convention decides whether a pesticide is appropriate to use or not. And in order to ban a pesticide by the Stockholm convention, three requisites are insisted upon. These are:

    1. It has to be biologically accumulative.
    2. It should be capable of endangering human health.
    3. It has to be persistent in the environment.

    Endosulfan possesses all these aspects and hence, it has to be banned. A recent study in Ludhiana in Punjab also points to the harmful effects of endosulfan. It is detrimental to reproductive potential. All research and study reports are to be evaluated before going against the ban.

  • #197637
    A new finding about impact of Endosulfan. Asia-net news channel has reported about few victims of endosulfan in Bihar and Rajasthan. Photos are also given. More severe cases. Various kinds of allergies, bulged out eyes etc are hunting them. What is the answer Government would give for this? Now it is clear that endosulfan is affecting the whole Nation. Proofs are like day light. Government of India cannot hide from this reality. Everything is clear now.
    Think before act.

  • #197638
    It will be good if we understand endosulfan chemically. It is an organochlorine insecticide. It is highly toxic. It is a hydrocarbon. Endosulfan is capable of mutation due to the large molecules which increases it's capacity to react with compounds. Soil's fertility is completely lost. Their will be no life in the soil where endosulfan is applied. One fact is true it is an effective insecticide. Vapors of this toxic substance is capable for many Kilo meters. It have been reported that endosulfan applied in Sahara region have reached Caribbean by crossing Atlantic ocean. Imagine it's impact! It is terrible. Why should government wait for?
    Think before act.

  • #197643
    Hi all,
    Well it was quite obvious that if cases from one state arised, other states won't be far behind, they also are releasing the ill effects of this harmful pesticide and this was quite expected. Sooner or later the root cause of any problem is unleashed and same is happening.

    Its high time that all the state govts collectively urge the central govt to stop the use of endosulfan.
    Regarding the alternatives, its not the task of govt to find alternatives, they are just the decision making bodies. I hope that in between all this crisis, our scientists would have already started a search for a less harmful insecticide eligible for wide spread use and this way people will get much relief.

    Govt has to take decision upon the status of endosulfan and it surely would have realised it by now that money can't over power human lives and so banning endosulfan is the only desired path in front of the govt.

    Regards
    Akshay
    Pay no heed to those who talk behind your back, it simply means that you are two steps ahead !

  • #197646
    I dont Know how many of you know Malayalam,Any way go through this page, Dr Muhammed Asheel working in the Endosulfan Rehabilitation camps, explains the scientific proof to claim Endosulfan is the reason for genetic disorders of the people at Kazargod district

    http://www.mathrubhumi.com/endosulfan/interview.html

  • #197680
    I know Malayalam. Dr Muhammad Ashlee's findings are absolutely correct. Page given by Mr.Raj reveals the harmful effects of endosulfan in children and adults. Photos will not tell lie. Those who support the use of endosulfan just go through the page. You will know the depth of hazard effects of endosulfan.

    http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/140070-Endosulfan-benefits-dangers-its-need-India.aspx

    The article written by chakravarthi is also very useful for those who don't have any idea about endosulfan out side this site. Hope more protests against endosulfan from other states.

    Think before act.


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