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2007 Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India (ICFAI) University Politics M.B.A Business Administration Recruitment, Training and Development (MB341H) Question paper



Course: M.B.A Business Administration   University/board: Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India (ICFAI) University





Question Paper
Recruitment, Training and Development (MB341H): July 2007
Section A : Basic Concepts (30 Marks)
This section consists of questions with serial number 1 - 30.


Answer all questions.

Each question carries one mark.

Maximum time for answering Section A is 30 Minutes.
1. The process of choosing the mo st suitable candidate for a job from among the available applicants is
called
(a) Recruitment
(b) Selection
(c) Placement
(d) Induction
(e) Appraisal.
2. A bank wanted to conduct a test for the applicants for the job of a clerk cum cashier. Most of the
applicants were fresh from the college with little experience related to the job. The bank wants to pick
and train the right candidates. Which test do you suggest to be the best in the given scenario?
(a) Aptitude test
(b) Intellig ence test
(c) Achiev ement test
(d) Situational test
(e) Physical test.
3. Which of the following describes in detail, the various aspects of a job like the tasks involved, the
responsibilities of the job and the deliverables?
(a) Jo b rotation
(b) Jo b description
(c) Jo b specification
(d) Jo b evaluation
(e) Jo b enlargement.
4. The HR department of Magnus Textiles made sure that any vacancies in the organization first made
know internally. Employees from the organization responded to job postings. What is the source of
recruitment being used?
(a) Advertisemen ts
(b) Internal search
(c) Employment exchanges
(d) Campus recruitment
(e) Ex ternal consultants.
5. Which of the following type of interview is suitable for selecting candidates for entry level and junior
management positions?
(a) Telephonic interview
(b) Unstructured interview
(c) Group interview
(d) In-depth interview
(e) Stress interview.
6. In which of the following tests the verbal, non-verbal, numerical and spatial ability are often mixed
together?
(a) Socio-metric tests
(b) Psych ometric tests
(c) Narco analysis
(d) Aptitude tests
(e) General ability tests.
7. Some of the big IT firms in country withdrew their campus placement offers when the IT market
plummeted a few years back. It shows that there was
I. Problem with the recruitment policy.
II. Problem with th e selection.
III. Problem with the human resource planning.
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(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (III) above
(c) Both (I) and (II) above
(d) Both (I) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
8. Vishal joined a consultancy firm as a trainee, but soon decided to leave the organization. During the exit
interview, it was found that he was not comfortable in the workplace, and also he did not find the work
atmosphere to be friendly. What could be the reason(s) for this?
I. The organization did not have an effective induction program.
II. The organization did not create a positive perception in the mind of the employee.
III. Th e employee was not able to adapt to the organ ization.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Only (III) abo ve
(d) Both (I) and (II) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
9. In an application form design, questions on all the following are ethical except
(a) The educational qualification of the employee
(b) The name and addresses of individuals who can be contacted for reference checks
(c) The employment history
(d) Salary drawn by the candidate in the last job
(e) Issues that concern the privacy of the applicant.
10. Which of the following is the process by which the knowledge of an employee, his skills, abilities and
motives to perform a job must match the requirements of the job?
(a) Jo b hopping
(b) Jo b ranking
(c) Jo b analysis
(d) Jo b posting
(e) Jo b enrichment.
11. A software firm has a vacancy for the post of "Vice President‘ (Operations). Which of the following
methods of recruitment would you suggest?
(a) Advertisement in local daily
(b) Camp us placement
(c) Employment pages of a national daily or a busin ess magazine
(d) Listing of the vacancy on walls outside the factory
(e) Employee referrals.
12. Which of the following is/are the disadvantage(s) of recruiting from inside the company?
I. Minimal time, effort and money will need to be spent on induction and training.
II. Staff feels important and hig hly valued.
III. Sometimes one‘s specific skills, knowledge may not be suitable fo r the position he is promoted.
IV. Constantly recruiting from inside the company can sometimes result in a severe shortage of new
ideas and developments.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Only (III) above
(d) Both (I) and (II) above
(e) Both (III) and (IV) above.
13. Once the interviewer has decided on the format, he can start formulating specific questions. The
question —Tell me abou t yourself“ comes under which of the following type of questions?
(a) Open-ended question
(b) Closed -ended question
(c) Critical question
(d) Casual question
(e) Probing question.
14. Action research is the application of th e scientific method to problem solving and involves the
following steps except
(a) Identification and focusing of the problem
(b) Diagnosis for probable cause
(c) Selection of one or a few causal relationships for formulating hypotheses
(d) Formulation of an action hypothesis which cannot be tested
(e) Designing an action plan based on the hypothesis.
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15. A trainee is given letter, telephone and telegraphic messages, along with information about the job and
the organization. The trainee is asked to take decisions on the basis of this in formation. What is the
training method known as?
(a) Behavior modeling
(b) Management game
(c) In-basket technique
(d) Role playing
(e) Case method.
16. Which of the following should not be viewed simply as a replacement for more traditional training
methods?
(a) Textbook oriented learning
(b) Programmed learning
(c) Simulation
(d) Distance learning
(e) Traditional memorization.
17. Which of the following refers to competently cope with the numerous interpersonal and group
interactions occurring in the training situation?
(a) Eg o-strength
(b) Leadership ability
(c) Interaction ability
(d) Group ability
(e) Chang e resistance.
18. The trainee is given a series of questions, after he studies the relevant material. He is then asked to
answer the questions and when the trainee answers a question, he is immediately given feedback. In the
above context, which method of the off-the-job training is discussed?
(a) Classroom lectures
(b) Sequential questionnaire
(c) Programmed instructions
(d) Simulation exercise
(e) Case exercises.
19. Which of the following is the process of developing new knowledge, skills, attitudes and values through
participation in formally org anized situations and natural social interactions?
(a) Learning
(b) Management
(c) Planning
(d) Organizing
(e) Directing.
20. Which of the following is false about the training?
(a) Training leads to action that cannot be repeated to self-motivation
(b) Training can lead to sustained, self-generating development
(c) Training, not force, promises what is essential to modern technologies and eco nomic systems
(d) Training is part of the grand march toward greater equality between people, toward more widespread
opportunities
(e) In training oriented regime, the su bscribers to force would have to share power with others.
21. An operational job description covers which of the following kinds of specifications?
I. Knowledge and skill content.
II. Relationships involved.
III. Time spans.
IV. Settings and roles.
(a) Both (I) and (II) above
(b) Both (I) and (III) above
(c) Both (II) and (III) above
(d) (I), (II) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.
22. The case study method is characterized by stimulating discussions among p articipants. Which of the
following skills of the participants does the case study method primarily aim to improve?
(a) Decision-making skills
(b) Staffing skills
(c) Reporting skills
(d) Interviewing skills
(e) Budgeting skills.
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23. In terms of which model of learning, the unexpected behavior of the trainer and the other special
conditions of the training laboratory make for rapid unfreezing?
(a) Action research
(b) Lewin‘s three-stage model
(c) Simple model
(d) Feedback model
(e) Spiral model.
24. A number of factors determine the choice of the type of training methods used by an organization. In
this resp ect, which of the following is not a factor that determines the training methods?
(a) Organizational cultu re
(b) Learning principles
(c) Employer p references and capabilities
(d) Time factor
(e) Cost effectiveness.
25. In which of the following simulation methods of training does the participants experience what
something —sounds“ or —feels like,“ the difference between talking about people and talking with them?
(a) Role playing
(b) Behavior games
(c) In- basket exercises
(d) Case study
(e) Seminars.
26. Which of the following are the partners in pretrain ing phase?
I. The work organizations.
II. The participants.
III. Th e training system.
IV. The affiliated trade unions.
(a) Both (I) and (II) above
(b) Both (I) and (III) above
(c) Both (II) and (III) above
(d) (I), (II) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.
27. Which of the following is/are true about case study?
I. A real-life problem encountered in the organization is presented to the trainees in the form of a
case.
II. The trainees need to analyze the case and present their views and recommendations for solving
problem.
III. Th e trainees have to suggest alternative courses of action to provide for contingencies that might
arise.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Only (III) above
(d) Both (I) and (II) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
28. The basic yardstick to measure the success of a training program is
(a) Number of participants
(b) Reputation of the trainer
(c) Trainees satisfaction on refreshments provided
(d) Learning benefits to the trainees
(e) The amount paid in travelling allowances and dearness allowances to all the trainees.
29. The purpose of training is to provide participants with an intensive experience of how they affect each
other-and probably other people also-and how a group forms, maintains itself, and deals with
relationship problems that are also characteristic of larger organ izations. The above definition is the
purpose of which of the following training methods?
(a) Individualized training
(b) Laboratory training
(c) Business games method
(d) Syndicate training
(e) Computer training.
30. All employees in an org anization, at some point of time perform functions such as planning, organizing,
directing, controlling and decision making. In which of the following areas, the employees should be
trained so as to move ahead in their career paths to assume positions of increased responsibility?
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(a) Corporate social responsibility
(b) Scientific management functions
(c) Managerial and su pervisory functions
(d) Cost consciousness
(e) Company policies and procedures.
END OF SECTION A
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Section B : Caselets (50 Marks)

This section consists of questions with serial number 1 œ 7.

Answer all questions.

Marks are indicated against each question.

Detailed explanations should form part of your answer.

Do not spend more than 110 - 120 minutes on Section B.
Caselet 1
Read the caselet carefully and answer the fo llowing questions:
1 What kind of interview do you think Abhay Mittal faced for th e post of Relationship Manager (RM)?
< Answer >
Describe the basic features o f such an interview.
(7 marks)
2 Discuss the various other kinds of interviews that could be used by organizations to make their selection
< Answer >
process effective. Also discu ss the advantages and disadvantages of each of these metho ds of selection.
(7 marks)
It was an important day for Abhay Mittal, a management graduate seeking an employment opportunity in the competitive business
environment. He received an interview call from one of the nation's leading private sector bank for the po st of Relationship
Manager (RM). His selection as an RM would be just the right break for Mittal in terms of the exposure and ex perience he would
get in this customer-oriented business environment. The responsibility of an RM includes providing important customers with
complete and integrated investment advice. The select customers were those who made huge investments in the various products
of the bank. The RM must also seek to attract prospective customers who had the potential to make heavy investments with the
bank.
Mittal was excited as he had been waiting for a call from this bank for quite some time. He then prepared for his interview
reading the company's performance and history, making a quick SWOT analysis of the bank, and getting his do cuments ready for
the interview. He also organized a mock interview with his friend who was an HR Manager in a consultancy firm. Having brushed
up the fundamentals in his areas of interest and study, Mittal was all set for th e interview the following day.
However, the interview proved to be a nightmare. It started an hour behind schedule and Mittal was kept waiting with no
intimation of the changed sched ule. The reception could not provide him any relevant information. Mittal, however, kept his cool
and waited patiently for his turn. Finally, after an hour, he was called in. He firmly knocked on the door before entering the
interview hall. The hall was huge with the panel of members seated in a corner. The panel consisted of seven members, none of
whom, according to Mittal seemed friendly and approachable. He was made to sit on a chair that seemed likely to break with the
slightest jerk. He however, managed to sit, leaning forward slightly and tried to listen to the panel.
A long silence followed Mittal then hesitatingly ventured to initiate the conversation. —Here are the certificates in proof of my
academic qualifications,“ he said. This was followed by a quick response from the person sitting to his left. —It is not a bundle of
certificates we are interested in, young man. They are no proof of how capable you are to handle the stress you wo uld experience
in case of your selection.“ Mittal was tak en aback for a moment. However, he gave a gentle smile and said that he was ready for
the interview.
Mittal encountered a barrage of questions, most of which seemed irrelevant to the job o f an RM. Although he could answer most
of the questions, he was never allowed to answer them completely. He was constantly interrupted by the panel members while
trying to answer the questions posed by each one of them. Most of the questions were sarcastic and cynical in nature. Mittal was
given ambiguous instructions and asked to solve a situational case. He was then put through imaginative situations that required
him to make tough decisions. Mittal could feel the tension creeping into him. Although he handled the questions well, he felt he
could have done better if the panel had been more approachable. There was complete silence for some time.
The panel members inquired if Mittal had any questions to ask. By then, Mittal was exhausted and longed to leave the room. He
kept his calm and said that there was nothing that he wou ld like to ask, even though he had prepared a sh ort list of questions the
previous evening.
The members assured him that they would get back to him soon. Mittal thanked the panel and left the room in disgust.
Caselet 2
Read the caselet carefully and answer the fo llowing questions:
3 Though the top management was initially apprehensive about the effectiveness of hiring an external
< Answer >
agency to support its recruitment activity, it was later convinced about the various benefits it accrued to
Synergy. Delineate the advantages of an external recruitment agency to organizations like Synergy
Tech nologies.
(7 marks)
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4
People Consulting could not provide candidates with the right competencies for managerial positions at
< Answer >
Synergy. Discuss the probable factors for the failure of People Consu lting in this case. Also suggest a
better source of recruiting candidates for managerial cadres.
(7 marks)
Synergy Technolog ies is a growing organization in the booming industry of outsourcing. Having established itself as a reputed call
center within a span of just five years, Synergy plans to diversify into other domains of Business Process Outso urcing (BPO). In
order to plan for the future manpower requirements of the company, the HR Manager, Aditi Arora, conducted a human resource
planning exercise that helped her compare the existing manpower resources vis-à-vis the resources need ed for diversification.
After studying the existing resources and the future needs, Arora determined that Synergy must recruit over six hundred employ ees
across various departments in the organization for the next operational year.
Arora studied the pros and cons of using various sources of recruitment. Since manpower requirement was mostly at the entry level
of the organ izational structure (customer care executives), Arora felt that it would be better if Synergy hired an external recruitment
agency, so that the initial screening of candidates would be done by the agent. This in turn, would save valuable time of the
company's HR department.
Even though the top management was skeptical about the effectiveness of a recruitment drive usin g an agency, it finally consented.
After a thorough study of a number of recruiting agencies, Arora decided to offer the project to People Consulting Services Ltd.,
(People Consulting). People Consulting was a reputed recruiting agency that specialized in serving the BPO units.
People Consulting had its own larg e database, from which it selected a few candidates. It also placed an advertisement in a reputed
daily, which attracted a good number of applicants. People Consulting conducted a written test for all the candidates and short
the top few candidates for the openings at Synergy. The written test was aimed at assessing the technical competence of the
applicants. The candidates who passed this were asked to attend another round of interview conducted by Synergy.
Arora herself was present on the interview panel. While the interviews went on, it dawned upon Arora as to how much of her time
and efforts were saved because of People Consulting . She could see the amount of work put in by People Consulting in short listing
suitable candidates for the positions, as she found that most of the candidates were suitable for the job. This was unlike the traditional
method of selection, wherein she had to spend a lot of time browsing through the resumes of thousands of people to shortlist the
desired candidates. In contrast, she now has to select from only a limited number of candidates for the position of call center
executives.
However, while selecting employees fo r the manager's position, Arora found that the candidates did not possess the right job
competencies. She felt th at the basis on which People Consulting selected tho se candidates did not su it/match the culture at Synergy.
They seemed to be a misfit in the organization in terms of their technical skills and their values. Their managerial skills also did not
match the standards expected by Synergy.
Arora therefore, met the recruitment head of People Consulting, and modified the contract, stating that the recruiting agency co uld
henceforth focus only on call center executives. She then sought alternative sources of recruitment for candidates for th e manag erial
cadre at Synergy.
By the end of the financial year, Arora successfully recruited all th e required resources for its new unit. After a while, the top
management was also convinced th at the recruitment and selection procedures drafted by Arora were appropriate and effective.
Synergy continued its association with People Consulting on a long-term basis.
Caselet 3
Read the caselet carefully and answer the fo llowing questions:
5 In the co ntext of the caselet, explain the steps taken by Infosys in training its new recruits.
< Answer >
(6 marks)
6 What are the various training methods used by Infosys? Explain the common simulation methods that
< Answer >
are usually used in training.
(9 marks)
7 The choice of training methods for a particular program depends, first of all, on a series of various
< Answer >
comparisons. Elaborate.
(7 marks)
In 2006, Infosys Technologies Limited was one of India‘s biggest IT companies and provided IT services, solutions, and
consultation globally. In 2005 it had earned revenues of US$1.6 bn and had over 49,000 employees worldwide. The dynamic
nature of the software and IT industry required its workforce to upgrade frequently in technology and skills. Companies were
focusing on continuous training and development of their employees, which also helped in the reduction of attrition rate. Providing
extensive training to the new recruits or freshers as the Infoscions called them was typical of Infosys. Every new recruit underwent
approximately three mo nths of training before they were made billable to clients.
The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) rated Infosys as the world‘s best in employee training and
development and conferred "Excellence in Practice Award‘ continuously fo r three consecutive years 2002, 2003 and 2004. The
award was conferred for its "Global Business Foundation School‘
Infosys spent ab out US$5,000 on training each recruit. After the new recruits joined Infosys, they were taken to Infosys U for a
14.5 week training program. At Infosys U, the freshers were welcomed in Infosys by NR Narayana Murthy through an audio
visual presentation. The initial days of the train ing program, freshers filled forms and learned the values that drove Infosys. During
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the entire training program, new recruits were trained to work on programs of different technical applications. The state
training rooms equipped with the latest technologies offered the recruits a world class work atmosphere. The library had o nline
database of Infosys case studies to help the recruits. The trainers generally imparted training in hard skills through lectures on the
concepts and theory for a few hours and then allowed the recruits to work independently and build their own applications for the
rest of the day.
While the training program focused mainly on technical skills, the freshers were also trained in soft skills. There were separate
rooms and faculties for soft skill training. Training was imparted on global etiquette, comportment, importance of body language,
public speak ing, improving interpersonal communication and team-building. Some of the methods included, asking the freshers to
perform skits, going through several "what-if‘ scenarios and to practice smiling in front of the mirror.
The residential program was necessary as according to NR Narayana Murthy who is of the view that: —If we want to train them
very efficiently, make them efficient and effective in their work as quickly as possible, we have to create an environment where
there is tremendous focus on learning, where there is an opportunity to work in a collaborative environment even beyond office
hours, where there is opportunity to seek out to faculty members on issues at all odd hours and make sure they learn whatever is
needed quickly and efficiently.“ The campus provided best of food to offer at an affordable price. Among other options, the
campus had the retail outlet of the pizza chain "Domino's Pizza‘ where both western and Indian varieties of pizzas were available.
To facilitate all-round development the center had an "Employee Care Center.‘ The employee care center offered recreational
facilities such as a gymnasium, a swimming pool, Jacuzzi, bowling alley and a meditation hall. It also had an intern ational
cricket ground and a multipurpose ground with a six -lane synthetic track, which housed basketball, volleyball, squash, and tennis
courts. The camp us also housed an auditorium, which had a seating capacity of 1,300 people and three multiplex theatres with a
capacity of 150 seats each. The freshers had to work fo r eight hours every day and at the end of the training program, the freshers
had to pass two comprehensive exams before proceeding further. About 1 % to 2% failed in the exams. On this NR Narayana
Murthy says: —My belief is that the first 14 weeks must be the toughest. By this we can ascertain who among our new trainees can
actually scale up to our expectations and who can't. IIM Ahmedabad is the same. If you can pass the first semester, the rest is easy.
Once we know that these people can go through a tough yet rewarding experience, there is a lot of learnin g, a sense of fulfillment
for the youngsters, and the job becomes easier for them.“ InfosysU also served as the opportunity to interact with Infoscions
working in countries other than India.
In 2006, Infosys U has the capacity to train over 4,000 freshers at a time and has expansion plans of increasing the capacity to
10,00 0 by 20 07.
END OF SECTION B
Section C : Applied Theory (20 Marks)

This section consists of questions with serial number 8 - 9.

Answer all questions.

Marks are indicated against each question.

Do not spend more than 25 -30 minutes on section C.
8 It is difficult for the organization to evaluate job applicant‘s performance only on the basis of
application forms or interviews. What type of employment tests helps the management to evaluate the
job applicant‘s suitability for the job, in a more appropriate way?
(10 marks)
9 Matthew Miles attributes difficulties in the post-training phase to the failure to redress various
imbalances in many training programs. Explain.
(10 marks)
END OF SECTION C
END OF QUESTION PAPER
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Recruitment, Training and Development (MB341H): July 2007
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Section A : Basic Concepts
1. Answer : (b)
< TOP >
Reason: The process of choosing the most suitable candidate for a job from among the available
applicants is called selection.
Recruitment is the process of seeking and attracting the right kind of people to apply for a
job in an organization.
Placement is —the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned
and his assignment to that job. It is a matching of what he impose (in strain, working
conditions) and what he offers in the form of payroll, companionship with o thers,
promotional possibilities etc.
The introducing a new employee to the organization, its business, the organization culture,
its values and beliefs, and practices and procedures is termed as induction.
Performance appraisal can be defined as the process of evaluating the performance of an
employee and communicating the results of the evaluation to him for the purpose of
rewarding or developing the employee.
2. Answer : (a)
< TOP >
Reason : Aptitude tests is the best test in the given scenario, as most of the applicants were fresh from
the college with little experience related to the job. The bank wants to pick and train the
right candidates.
3. Answer : (b)
< TOP >
Reason: Job description describes in detail, the various aspects of a job like the tasks involved, the
responsibilities of the job and the deliverables.
Job rotation is placing an emp loyee on different jobs for different periods of time, where he
gains job knowled ge and experience in each of the different job assignments
Job specifications is the process of listing the qualification, knowledge, skills, experience,
personal characteristics etc.required, for the incumbent to perform the job successfully.
Job evaluation is the systematic process of analyzing jobs to determine the relative worth of
a job within the organization.
Job enlargement is the process of increasing the length and hence the operating time of each
cycle of work for the job holder.
4. Answer : (b)
< TOP >
Reason: Internal search is the source of recruitment being used. As employees from the organization
responded to job postings.
5. Answer : (c)
< TOP >
Reason : Group interview is suitable for selecting candidates for entry level and junior management
position jobs, as for the entry level and junior management position the number of the
applicants is high and the time available for interviewing is short.
6. Answer : (e)
< TOP >
Reason: In general ability tests the verbal, non-verb al, numerical and spatial ability are offen mixed
together.
7. Answer : (b)
< TOP >
Reason: Statement (III) is true.
Some of the big IT firms in country withdrew their campus placement offers when the IT
market plummeted a few years back. It shows that there was problem with the human
resource planning. As the process of HRP starts with understanding the organizational
objectives, and translating them into a schedule of employee requirements over a period of
time. It is the responsibility of HR deparment to ensure a balance in the management of HRP
of resources in an unstable and unpredictable market.
I. Recruitment policy is evaluated from time to time to test its effectiveness and
conforman ce to the organizational strategies, policies and objectives. The sources and
methods of recruitment also evaluated from time to time to match the recruitment
policy and changing market and business needs and to check their effectiveness and
efficiency.Hence there is no problem with the recruitment policy.
II. Selection process in an organization depends on the organization‘s strategy and
objectives. Organizational ob jectives determines the "recruitment policy‘,hence as per
the explaination on recruitment policy given there is no problem with the selection.
8. Answer : (e)
< TOP >
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Reason: All (I), (II) and (III) are true.
The organ ization did not have an effective induction program, as a good induction program
could have given the new employee an insight into job requirements and initiates them into
the company work culture. The objective of an induction program is to make the individual
feel welcome in the organization and he may feel like home.It enable him to build a rapport
with his colleagues.
The organization did not create a positive perception in the mind of the employee, as to
create a positive perception the su pervisor should personally be involved in the induction
program of the new employee.
The employee was not able to adapt to the organization, as the earlier he adapts, the earlier
he would start contributing to the organization.
9. Answer : (e)
< TOP >
Reason: Application forms are designed to help applicants provide pertinent information regarding
their education qualification, name and addresses of individuals who can be contacted for
reference checks, employment histo ry, salary drawn by the candidate in the last job etc. This
would help in the intial screening of the applicant.
"Issues that concern the privacy of the applicant‘ should not be included in application form
design. The local laws of every country have d istinct features and it is the responsibility of
the employer to abide by them while designing the application form. The most common
princip le of "equal employment opportunity‘, has to be adhered to, and questions on the
caste and race etc. of the applicant to be avoided. As the questions would invade,even
remotely, the privacy of the applicant.
10. Answer : (c)
< TOP >
Reason: Job analysis is the process by which the knowledge of an employee, his skills, abilities and
motives to perform a job must match the requirements of the job.
Job stress: The conditions in the workplace that negatively affect an individual's
performance and/or the overall well-being of his body an d mind.
Job ranking: A form of job evaluation that subjectively ranks jobs according to their overall
worth in the organization
Job posting: The process used by managers to provide information about job openings to
employees
Job enrichment: The process of redesigning the jobs so as to increase both their scope and
their depth.
11. Answer : (c)
< TOP >
Reason: Employment pages of a national daily or a business magazine as it is for the high er postion
of "Vice President‘ (Operations).
Advertisement in local daily limits the response due to its limited reach.
Campus placement is suitable for looking for fresh talents.
Employee referrals is good source of recruitment for the lower and middle level
management.
Listing of the vacancy on walls outside the factory is d one for casual labours.
12. Answer : (e)
< TOP >
Reason : Statements (III) and (IV) are the disadvantages of recruiting from inside the company
13. Answer : (a)
< TOP >
Reason: An interview is a goal-oriented, in terpersonal communication between an interviewer and a
respondent. It is primarily undertaken to accomplish a specific purpose, perhaps to obtain or
provide information, to solve a problem, or to persuade someone to undertake some action.
Style and structure of an interview depends on its purpose and on the relationship between
the two parties involved. Interview can be structured in many ways. Questions are also
framed based o n the type of information required from the candidate. The question, —tell me
about your self“ comes under the open-ended question.
14. Answer : (d)
< TOP >
Reason: As it is formulation of an action hypothesis which can be tested.
15. Answer : (c)
< TOP >
Reason: In in-basket training technique the trainee is given letter, telephone and telegraphic
messages, along with information about the job and the organization. The trainee is ask ed to
take decisions on the basis of the information given to him.
16. Answer : (d)
< TOP >
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Reason: Distance learning method should not be viewed as a replacement for the more traditional
methods of training. There are a number of clear characteristics of residential, face-to-face,
group an d practical methods which would be difficult to duplicate in any system of
individ ual study particularly, where this study may be carried in parallel with normal work
experience.
Programmed Learning is a method whereby the trainee learners himself by working through
a series of steps, all leading to carefully defin ed goals or objectives.
There are many different types of traditional methods of learning viz., traditional
memorization, test taking and textbook oriented learning. These are not meant to be
burdensome, they are simply the best way to teach and evaluate comprehension of the
material.
17. Answer : (b)
< TOP >
Reason: Leadership ability refers to competently cope with the numerous interpersonal and group
interactions occurring in the training situation.
Ego-strength denotes a person‘s emotional maturity, stability and sense of personal
adequacy. People with high ego-strength have been found to be suited for occupations
requiring flexibility, and they contribute actively in maintaining group morale.
The other options are general assumption.
18. Answer : (c)
< TOP >
Reason : In programmed instruction method of training after the trainee reads the relevant material
required for the accomplishment of the job, he is given a sequence of questions and after he
answers a question immediately he is given feedback whether it is right or wrong. If the
answer is correct, he is asked to proceed to the next question.
19. Answer : (a)
< TOP >
Reason: Learning is the process of developing new knowledge, skills, attitudes and values through
participation in formally organized learning situations and natural social interactions.
20. Answer : (a)
< TOP >
Reason: As training leads to action that can be repeated to self-motivation end to further
improvement through onward practice.
21. Answer : (e)
< TOP >
Reason: All (I), (II) (III) and (IV) are the kinds of specifications an operational job description
covers.
< TOP >
22. Answer : (a)
Reason : In case study method the train ees study, analyze and discuss the case, identify the app arent
or hidden problems, identify the root causes and try to suggest probable solutions from
which they eventually select the most viable one. The whole exercise aims at improving the
decisio n-making skills of the participants.
< TOP >
23. Answer : (b)
Reason: According to Lewin‘s three-stage model of learning, the expected behavior of the trainer
and the other special conditions of the training laboratory make rapid unfreezing.
Training modalities provides the frame for designing and sequencing training inputs and
selecting methods to produce the desired effects.
Simple mod el: in this model, improvement is a dependent variable, and perticipants and
organizations independent variables.
Feedback model of action: The process starts, quit simply, with trainer‘s desires to improve
their work in some respect. Every subsequent step follows without much difficulty. Shaping
the —problem“ into a researchable question and collecting and analyzing data so that they
provide useful guidance require.
In spiral model their are the phase through which participants pass as they learn, then return
(with enhanced capabilities, we hope) to their jobs. At various stages in the process the other
two partners contribute —inputs“ to assist the participants.
24. Answer : (c)
< TOP >
Reason : It is employee preferences and capabilities.
25. Answer : (a)
< TOP >
Reason: In role playing, the participants experience what something —so und s“ or —feels like“, the
difference between talking about people and talking with them
26. Answer : (d)
< TOP >
Reason: Statements (I), (II) and (III) are true.
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As the affiliated trade unions is not a partner in pretraining phase.
27. Answer : (e)
< TOP >
Reason: All (I), (II) and (III) are true about case study.
28. Answer : (d)
< TOP >
Reason: The basic yardstick to measure the success of a training program is learning benefits to the
trainees.
29. Answer : (b)
< TOP >
Reason: Laboratory training purpose is to provide participants with an intensive experience of how
they affect each other-and probably other people also-and how a group forms, maintains
itself, and deals with relationship problems that are also characteristic of larger organization.
Individualized training: Tutoring, individual p ractice of specific skills and reading and
written assignments are traditional methods of individualized training. For the many tasks
that involve a senior and a junior together, and for other involving just one person, this
method simulates the work situation.
In business games method, the trainees are divided in to different groups or teams. They
play the roles of the competing firms in a simulated market. As the management team of a
simulated firm, each team studies, discusses and arrives at decisions regarding production,
advertising and pricing, etc
Syndicate training: To provide participants with o ppo rtunities to exchange information,
views, ideas and recollections of experiences.The methods are most promising if the group
consists of people who come from different professional backgrounds and fub\nctions but
work in samiliar organizations and jobs.
Computer training: It is a training given for skilled employees for there carreer development
and depends on individual requirements of training.
30. Answer : (c)
< TOP >
Reason: All the emplo yees in an organization, at some point of time perform managerial and
supervisory functions such as planning, organizing, directing, controlling and decision
making. Thus, training in these areas is essential fo r managerial and supervisory as they
move ahead in their career paths to assume positions of increased responsibility. The other
options are general assumption.
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Section B : Caselets
1 Abhay Mittal had to face a stress interview. A stress interview is generally conducted when the
interviewer wants to find out how the interviewee tackles problems under situations of high pressure and
extreme stress. The candidate's ability to tolerate ambiguity, his multi-tasking abilities, etc., is all put to
test in a stress interview.
The questions posed in such an interview are generally aimed at:
Gauging the extent to which a candidate might make an effort to solve a problem.
In other words, such questions aim at finding the willingness and ability of the candidate to go that extra
mile to accomplish a given task .
1. Establishing how effectively the prospect utilizes the resources available to solve the problem on
hand. He is generally given an ill-equipped situational case and asked to fin d a solution.
2. Assessing how tactfully the candidate resolves a conflict between team members.
3. The interviewers generally suggest a situation wherein there exists a serious conflict among the
team members and ask the candidate to resolve the conflict.
4. Checking whether the prospect is able to maintain a balance between h is emotional and intellectual
faculties. The questions aim at challenging his integrity and ethical strength. He is given situational
cases where he is forced to make decisions that are against his beliefs and is observed on how he
reacts to such situations.
5. Creating unexpected situations and observing the reaction of the candidate and his ability to cope
with such situations.
While these tactics create a simulated work environment and gauge the candidates' ab ility to tackle
problems and make decisions, they fail to bring out the real potential o f the candidates. They also inhibit
the initiative of the candidates. Organizations, therefore, are discouraged from using stress interviews.
2 Organizations use different methods of selectio n based on th e resources available, and on the level and
importance of the job in the organization. Some of the most common ones are:
Formal and structured interview - A formal interview is very rigid in its structure and conten ts. It is
based on a through job analysis, which directs the flow of the interview. The interviewer selects the
questions to be asked and plans the interview in advance, to comprehensively cover all areas related to
the job and the candidate. The main advantage of a structured interview is that there is no scope for
subjectivity. The same questions are asked to all the cand idates, which help in an objective evaluation.
Unstructured interview - An unstructured interview, as the name suggests, has no predetermined
framework of questions and takes its own course depending on th e responses of the candidate and the
interest of the interviewer. The questions are generally open-ended in nature. The main advantage of this
kind of interview is that the candidate remains comfortable during the course of the interview because
the interaction tends to proceed naturally. The disadvantage, however, is that such interview tend to be
more subjective and prone to bias.
Group interview - In this method, a group of candidates are interviewed by a panel of interviewers or a
single in terviewer. This method is used when the number of applicants is high and the time available for
interviewing is short. This method is used while recruiting candidates for entry level and junior
management positions. One advantage of this meth od is that the candidates can evaluate their own
performance in comparison with the performance of others in the group.
Panel interview - In to day's organizations where the functions are interdependent and every job
involves cross-functional interactio ns, it is imperative that peo ple from different departments interview a
candidate. More and more organizations are looking at either a panel interview or a series of interviews,
where representatives from different departments get to meet and interview a candidate. This also
reduces the subjectivity involved in the one-to-one interview. As experts, these interviewers evaluate the
candidate's suitab ility for the position.
In-depth interview - In-depth interviews are more suitable for selection of candidates for high-end
technology and high-skill jobs. Experts in the relevant area test the candidate's knowledge and
understanding of the subject and assess his expertise. They determine the suitability of the candidate for
the job in question, based on these evaluations
3 Organizations lately have realized the magnitude of time and resources that are invested in selecting
prospective employees for vacant positions in an organization. The general perception now is that it
would be more efficient for firms to utilize these resources for more critical jobs in the organization and
outsource recruitment. Therefore, firms like Synergy are employing the services of recruitment agencies
which have the expertise in selecting the right candidates for the jobs. The following are a few
advantages that Synergy might enjoy by hiring an external recruiting agency:

Since there is high possibility of receiving a large number of applications for the vacant positions
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advertised through the print media, Synergy would have to spend a lot of resources like manpower and
time in reviewing all these applications and then short listing candidates for the interviews.
Arranging interviews for all the eligible candidates is another mammoth task, especially when there
are large numbers involved. By hiring People Consulting, Synergy can be relieved of all the
mundane work that is to be done in the case of direct recruitment.

Synergy was planning to open a new unit, for which it wanted to recruit people.

As it was a new venture, the company might not have had a complete idea of the skill-set required
in the candidates, or it might not have had the technical expertise to select the right candidates. It,
however, now has the additional advantage of the expertise from People Consulting.

Synergy might benefit from the support offered by People Consulting, in case it lacks the required
resources like HR staff, or technical personnel to recruit candidates.

People Consulting might help Synergy in getting an exp erien ced and talented workforce that is
already employed elsewhere, and do not have the time to seek better opportunities. Such candidates
generally apply to reputed recruitment agencies seeking better jobs.

Most reputed recruitment agencies offer to handle all aspects of the recruitment process, right from
the initial inquiries to talking to references, and finally placing the candidates in the jobs. They also
involve themselves in the development of the employee, over an extended period.

Good recruitment ag encies have expertise in a wide range of effective recruiting techniques like
assessment centers, psychometric tests, etc. This reduces the probability of making a wrong hiring
decision.
Thus, with the above advantages that recruiting firms like People Consulting offer, companies like
Synergy can opt to hire them, and use them to their advantage by paying a reasonable price.
4 •
While companies gain a variety of advantages by hiring external recruiting agencies, they are also
liable to a substantial amount of risks. This happens generally when the recruiting agency fails to
understand the culture of the organization and the kind of people it requires. For instance, in the
above case, Synergy hired People Consulting to recruit people for its various openings in its new
unit. When it wanted to recruit people for middle-level managerial positions, People Consulting
failed to bring in the right candidates. This might be due to People Consulting's inability to
understand the precise requirements of Synergy, in terms of the job description and job
specification. When the recruiting agency fails to understand this, it makes a wrong choice of
candidates. This can be overcome by explicitly stating to the recruiting firm, the job requirements
in terms of the content of the job and the qualification of prospective candidates. Synergy must also
ensure that its work culture is clearly understood by the recruiting agency.

Other sources of recruitment that can be used by Synergy to fill up vacancies in the managerial
cadre could be the existing employees (capable members may be promoted), the company's own
database, placing advertisements, taking referrals from employees etc. Each of these sources of
recruitment has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. The most effective way to fill these
vacancies is by using the company's own database, or by promoting people from its existing unit.
This would help Synergy tap the potential candidates who are genuinely interested in working with
the company. By promoting existing employees, Synergy might benefit by the enhanced employee
morale and motivation, which in turn, increases employee productivity and organizational
profitability.
5 The steps taken by Infosys in training its new recruits are:
After the new recruits joined Infosys, they were taken to Infosys U for a 14.5 week training program. the
freshers were welcomed in Infosys by NR Narayana Murthy through an audio visual presentation. The
initial days of the training program, freshers filled forms an d learned the values that drove Infosys.
During the entire training program, new recruits were trained to work or program different tech
applications. The state-of-the-art training rooms equipped with the latest technologies offered the
recruits a world class work atmosphere. The library had online database of Infosys case studies to help
the recruits. The trainers generally imparted training in hard skills through lectures on the concepts and
theory for a few hours and th en allowed th e recruits to work independently and build their own
applications for the rest of the day. The freshers were also trained in soft skills. There were separate
rooms and faculties for soft skill training. Training was imparted on global etiquette, comportment,
importance of body language, public speaking, improving interpersonal communication and team-
building. The new recruits were train in the residential program. The campus provided best of food to
offer at an affordable price. To facilitate all-round development the center had an "Employee Care
Center.‘ The employee care center offered recreational facilities such as a gymnasium, a swimming pool,
Jacuzzi, bowling alley and a meditation hall. It also had an international-class cricket ground and a
multipurpose ground with a six-lane synthetic track, which housed basketball, volleyball, squash, and
tennis courts. The campus also housed an auditorium, which had a seating capacity of 1,300 people and
three multiplex theatres with a capacity of 150 seats each. The freshers had to work for eigh t hours every
day and at the end of the training program, the freshers had to pass two comprehensive exams before
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proceeding further. About 1 % to 2% failed in the exams. Infosys U also served as the opportunity to
interact with Infoscions working in countries other than India.
6 The various training methods used in training program of Infosys are;
1. Audio visual presentation.
2. State-of-the-art training rooms equipped with the latest technologies offered the recruits a world
class work atmosphere.
3. Online database
4. Case studies
5. Lectures
6. Technical and soft skills: Training was imparted on global etiquette, comportment, importan ce of
body language, public speaking, improving interpersonal communication and team-building. Some
of the methods included, asking the freshers to perform skits, going through several "what-if‘
scenarios and to practice smiling in front of the mirror.
Simulations
Simulations can range from the simple (creating roles and situational dynamics to help participants
briefly "ex perience" and practice different ways of dealing with situations and consequences) to the
more elaborate (organized and planned, but simplified causal chains of situations extending over several
days). They are "games" in as much as the consequences of success or failure are not "for real."
However, the experience of personal success, failure, competence, satisfaction, and self-doubt, often
under intense pressure, can be real enough to be memorable. In all simulations some dimensions are
controlled to allow selected aspects to be highlighted. Simulation methods are therefore also called
"controlled experience" methods.
The three most common simulation methods are: role playing, games, and in-basket exercises.
Role Play ing: The purpose of role playing is to help participant‘s experience what something "sounds"
or "feels like," the difference between talking about people and talking with them, or talking about an
action and actually starting. Role playing can be very real in these situations.
Role p laying is a very flexible training method. It may be elaborately pre-plann ed, with the actors
carefully primed and session time specifically earmarked for the play and its subsequent discussion. Or
the trainer can encourage participants to role play spontaneously during some session. Careful
management of time is important for the first version; otherwise discussion time or repeat performances
will be neglected. Role playing is mainly useful for training in behavioral dimensions. Careful d esigns to
highlight trouble spots in participants' lives, role briefing of players, and allowing sufficient time after
each play for its discussion are very important. "Role-play kits" can be developed for widespread use
through rep eated trials, ev aluations, and revisions.
Behavior Simulation Games: These focus primarily on the processes of interpersonal relations, on how
decisions are made, and with what consequences, rather than on the substance of the decisions.
Some trainers use "structured exercises" to denote all types o f simulations, but it might be better to
distinguish b etween games and exercises. Games have set rules and predictable results. Often their
design is hidden in order to highlight a behavio ral process and to d ramatize its effects. When the "secret"
is out, repeating th at game with the same group wo uld be senseless. Exercises, on the other hand,
simulate a process and can be repeated until learning is assured. They provide scope for improvisation,
adaptation, and redesigning according to personal and situational needs.
The trainer or the facilitator has a wide range of critical roles in simulatio ns sessions. One moment she
provides expertise, the next she is theory builder and teacher: she organizes and manages the session and
facilitates its process. Both process learning and cognitive learning can result from a good simulation
session. The most common shortfalls occur in the processing or debriefing of participants after a game
or exercise.
In-Basket Exercises: The most elaborate simulations "create" a complex work organization, rotate
participants through key roles in it, and have them "deal with" specific situations of a kind they
encounter in real life. Management trainees may work at an office d esk with ringing telepho nes and full
in-baskets. Participants have a number of intradepartmental and interdepartmental memos, letters,
reports, forecasts, and other data on their desks, such as they might no rmally receive. They pose a series
of problems to handle, perhaps a crisis which the officer they play must correct. They can use the
channels of communication normally open: telephone, memos, and face-to-face meetings.
7 The choice of training methods for a particular program depends, first of all, on a series of three
comparisons
1. Methods compared with training objectives;
2. Methods compared with the learning process and its Stages; and
3. Methods compared with available time, skills, and facilities.
1. Methods Compared with Objectives
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The ratings are necessarily rough. A skillful, devoted trainer can deflect the tendencies of a particular
method. Some contexts .are favorable, others unfavorable. But even rough ratings indicate the major
tendencies. Where widely varying conditions might make a rating misleading, we have left the space
blank. Blank ratings may be regarded as promising, if certain conditions are present. Simulation,
laboratory, and case methods are promising on almost all scores. Simulation is low on exposure to new
ideas. The laboratory method coverage is limited to personal and organizational behavior and so leaves
thinking about the job as a whole uncertain.
Individual training, seminars, and other general discussions cannot meet a number of training objectives
and, therefore, are limited to very specific uses. Seminars and lectures do well only for exposure to new
ideas and studying one's job in a wider context. The "High" ratings for protecting participants and
organizations against mistakes indicate that some meth ods are very distant from the work situation. It
was this very distance that placed them in sixth and seventh place in our list of methods.
2. Methods Compared with Learning Process
Training in the field and by simulation, laboratory, case, and individual methods scores high in the five
early stages of the learning process. In its limited field of coverage, the laboratory method is very strong
throughout, except for conceptual understanding of a job as a who le. The g eneral discussion and lecture
methods do not fare well in this comparison.
3. Methods Compared with Facilities
The first (participant's role) have a direct bearing on the skills and facilities required to use a particular
method. The data in relates what is desirable to what is possible or impossible for a particular program,
or institution, or system. The limitations impinge particularly on three aspects: inadequate time for
preparation and follow-up (field, simulation, and case methods), scarcity of suitable materials (cases and
individual training), and scarcity of certain training skills (field, simulation, laboratory, and case
methods). The time limitation is the easiest to remove. Much of it can be removed by planning further
ahead. The rest can be translated into costs. But if costs were related to the results of training, the
additional cost would prove a bargain in almost every instance. The limitations of training materials are
more difficult to remove because they are linked with the third limitation, the severe shortage of training
skills needed for the use of highly desirable methods. In the case of diagnostic field training and
laboratory training, the shortage is so critical that these methods have to be omitted from the tool kit.
Section C: Applied Theory
8 Psychological tests are used to evaluate the suitability of the applicant to job requirements. They may be
classified as follows:
Intelligence tests: These are the first standardized tests developed by psychologists and are most widely
conducted. Various psychologists define intelligence in many ways. Binet Simon considered intelligence
as a general trait, a capacity for comprehension and reasoning. L. L. Thurstone and T. G. Thurstone,
differentiated mental abilities from the general trait of intelligence and created more specialized
intelligence tests based on reasoning, word fluency, verbal comprehension, numbers, memory and space.
The Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale utilized a multiple measurement of such factors as digits span
both forward and backward, information known, comprehension, vocabulary, picture arrangement, and
object assembly.
Aptitude tests: Aptitude tests measure whether an ind ividual has the ability to learn a given job, if given
adequate training. Aptitude tests can be used when an applicant has, little or no experience related to the
job which is to be filled. Organizations that are looking for persons who will show a higher degree of
success after the training-period, normally utilize these tests.
Examples of specific capacities or aptitudes are mechanical, clerical, linguistic, musical, and academic
abilities. Some psychologists also include certain motor capacities such as finger dexterity, hand
dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in this category. The mechanical aptitude tests contain questions
that test the applicants understanding of mechanical relationships. They relate to the knowledge of actual
shop machines, tools, and other eq uipmen t. They measure the applicant‘s capacity for spatial
visualization, perceptual speed and knowledge of mechanical matter. These tests are useful for selecting
apprentices, killed, mechanical employees, technicians, etc. The psychomotor tests hat measure motor
capacities are useful in selecting semiskilled workers for repetitiv e operations. Clerical aptitude tests
measure specific abilities involved in office work. This test includes spelling, computation,
comprehension, copying, and word processing tests.
Achievement tests: Applicants who claim to have a certain amount of know ledge in a particular area
are put through achievement tests. These tests measure the extent of their knowledge. Organizations that
wish to employ experienced candidates can use these tests. These tests can be classified into 'job
knowledge' test and 'work sample' test.
In a job knowledge test, a candidate's knowledge of a particular job in which he has experience is tested,
while in the wo rk sample test a portion of the actual work is given to the candidate and asked to perform
it. These tests enable the management to evaluate the can didate's knowledge about the job and the ability
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to do the actual work.
Situational tests: Situational tests evaluate a candidate's performance in a real-life situation. In this test,
the candidate is asked, either to deal with particular situation or solve certain problems associated with
the job. Situational tests in clude "leaderless group discussion and in basket and business g ames.
Leaderless Group Discussion - Candidates are asked to participate in a group discu ssion, while the
management observes and evaluates the can didate's capabilities in the areas of initiating, leading, selling
abilities, conciliation skills, oral communicatio n skills, coordinating and concluding skills. IBM uses a
Leaderless Group Discussion in which each participant is required to make a five-minute presentation.
In basket: This candidate is given actual letters, telephone and telegraphic messages, repo rts and
requirements from various officers in the organization, along with adequate information about the job
and o rganization . The candidate is asked to take decisions on various issues based on the' in basket'
information.
Business games: It is a living case in which candidates play themselves, an assigned role, and are
evaluated within a group. These are used for a variety of executive activities, from marketing to capital
asset management. The games vary from stock market to battle simulations.
Interest tests: A person who is interested in a job or task will do much better than one who is not.
Interest tests help the managemen t to find out whether a candidate is interested in the job applied for.
These tests are generally inventories of the likes and dislikes of can didates in relation to work, job,
occupations, hobbies and recreational activities.
Personality tests: The personality of individuals plays an important role in their success. Individuals
having intelligence, aptitude, and the right experience for a certain job often fail due to their inability to
get along with and motiv ate other people. These tests probe an individual's value system, emotional
reactions, maturity level, and characteristic mood. These are expressed through traits like self-
confidence, tact, emotional control, optimism, decisiveness, sociability, conformity, objectivity,
patience, fear, distrust, initiative, judgment, dominance or submission, impulsiveness, sympathy,
integrity, stability and self-confidence.
The personality tests are usually ob jective tests; they can be used for group testing and can be rated
objectively. However, projective tests also have been designed in order to obtain a mo re realistic
assessment of personality.
Techniques of scoring like the "Preference Record‘ have been developed to distinguish between the
honest answers and the fake answers.
9 Matthew Miles attributes difficulties in the posttraining phase to the failure to redress four imbalances in
many training programs. He calls these input overload, unrealistic goals, alienation, and link age failure
1. Input Overload
The program stimulated the participants so much that they came to the end of it too excited for their
own good, or for the good of their organization. This overload may have come about through
several kinds of errors on the part of the trainers. The trainers may have attempted to cram too
much into the program. This is very common. Or they may have scheduled a major group task so
late that participants could not —decompress“ before the end of the program. Programs that build up
a late assignment into a dominant indicator of the program's overall success or failure often suffer
from this weakness. To make sure participants return home in top form, trainers deliberately tend to
hold the assignment until the last possible moment-a report of fieldwork, for instance. They then go
on to mistake the level of excitement generated at the end of the program for a true measure of the
success of training.
2. Unrealistic Goals
The second imbalance may have occurred when setting the goals of training. In their initial
enthusiasm, participants, severally and jointly, set themselves goals that are excessively high. And
even though these unrealistic goals were unattainable all along, the trainers failed to dislodge them
from the participants' minds.
The freer the training, the more prone was it to develop this imbalance.
In the freedom to explore and learn the limitations in various work situations, a kind of hotho use
atmosphere ensues in which realistic goal setting is difficult. Trainers may have exaggerated this
tendency by not controlling competitive goal-setting; perhaps they even welcomed it. In the
process, their atten tion was diverted from the realities of actual work situ atio ns. The characteristic
list of requests from p articipan ts at the end of almost every program indicate at once the eagerness
and the anxiety they feel about implementing the goals they have set for themselves. A standard
request is that their superiors be trained "so that they will understand us." Another is for some kind
of continuing association of participants as a separate body of trained people. A third is for
continuing live contact with the trainers and the institution.
If unrealistic goals still loom at the end of the program, one of two things happens. Looking back,
some participan ts may' sense the lack of realism in, the goals, feel they are returning to work
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unclear about what they can usefully attempt to do, and so entertain doubts about the practical
value o f the training program as a whole. Others, who take the unrealistic goals back to their work,
are bound to fail and to become disenchanted.
3. Alienatio n
As participants have drawn closer to each o ther during the training program, they have also
separated th emselves from colleagues who stayed behind at work. The separation is widened
(except in remedial training) by the new things participants have learned. The gap is particularly
noticeable if it occurs in the realm of attitudes and values: to the extent, for example, that
participants have become far more egalitarian, open and trustful among themselves, co lleagues at
work may appear very different, less enlightened. This is a first step to alienation. Any alienation
left unresolved at the end of the program will interfere with even the most realistic plans
participants have made for commun icating their learning to others. Often it heads them into general
resentment and isolation at work. This unintended and unexpected result can be most painful and
disillusioning.
Compared to their necessarily improvised, untried, and tentative attempts to chang e things, existing
methods of working, sanctioned and supported, appear wonderfully solid and invite continuation.
Why try to change them when only anger results? Sooner or later, the initial impetus of training
wanes, and the participants doubt the utility or wisdom of continuing to wander in the wilderness of
novelty and pioneering. Response from all around urges them to forget their training just as soon as
possible. The crudest example of alienation is the plight of many participants in long overseas
programs who, when they returned to their home country, felt like fish out of water and hence
departed again. Some have clun g to an indefinite idea of trying to return again later, but the second
try usually looks more difficult even than the first
4. Linkage Failure
The very detachment which made the training program clear, fascinating, and productive may have
blinded participants to what they will be up against when they return to ordinary life. There the
simplicity o f the training situation is replaced by role conflicts, work pressures, and vested
interests. If important sections of the work o rganization did not approve of the training in the first
place, or if participants committed themselves to a program without their organization's active
support or even approval, then the problems of effectively linking training and work are bound to
be acute. Even without these additio nal complicatio ns, there is a built-in linkage problem. In the
first place, training programs imply some inadequacy on the part of the work organization: a need
for change, a defect of routine mechanisms, some inadequacy that prevents the exp loration of ideas
and behavior beyond the organization's normal tolerance. If training has succeeded, these
challenges invade the organization itself through the returning participant: a Trojan horse of
unknown contents and implications is present in their very midst.
Changes derived from th e training program, therefore, despite appropriateness and quality, do not
determine the prospects of successful innovation of and in themselves. The organization's
preparedness also matters g reatly. But even when preparedness is assured, the adequacy with which
participants have been helped to anticipate and to cope with the strategic problems they will
encounter at work matters even more.
The following extract from a letter illustrates well the frustration of a participant who had just
returned to work and encountered organizational unpreparedness and also in his own skill:
The last four to five months are enough to make me fed up with the things here. What a difference!
During the training both Roy and I were working like mad people. Work and work and wo rk, and
what a joy! And here-as soon as I reached I got the first sad taste of inaction. As I have sinned in
going for training in the first place ... I have none to blame except myself-for interpersonal
incompetence. We take sessions on temporary systems, we talk about "linkage failure." We talk
about back-home job reorientation. That's it. Cognitively we all are experts. But when it comes to
experiencing and action, we are no better than laymen.
Each of the four common imbalances discussed above has its roots way back in the program or
even in the pretraining phase of training . They were allotted in the training strategy and in the
overall relationships between the work organization and the system. For fu ture programs a training
institution can iron out such imbalances in approach and methods. For instance, it can take steps to
increase the organization's awareness, as well as the participants‘; of the difficulties to he faced at
the end of the training program. It can adjust the program to a volume and rhythm that will enable
participants to deal with the difficulties of transfer. It can make structural changes in its p rogram to
avoid disabling alienation; for example, the institution can split a long continuous program into a
series of shorter separate prog rams, or it can strive to build quickly minimum concentrations of
trained participants in the organization, perhaps at several interrelated levels. Such steps show
institution learning from its own experience. Right here we are concerned with a program that has
just fin ished, whose participants are returning to work. If there are imbalances in the picture at this
moment and the participants beset with difficulties as they journey homeward, the institution's
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hands are fairly empty. For better or for worse, the participants must proceed substantially on their
own. Only when the imbalances are moderately low can an institution carry out posttraining
functions.
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