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Posted Date: 16 Jul 2009 Posted By:: rajesh kale Member Level: Silver Points: 5 (₹ 1)
2009 Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya(Technical University) Computer M.C.A M.C.A.(Fourth Semester) Examination,June,2009 Question paper
M.C.A.(Fourth Semester) Examination,June,2009
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND APPLICATIONS
Time : Three Hours
Maximum Marks : 100
Minimum Pass Marks : 40
Note : Attempt any one question from each Unit. All questions carry equal marks. Answers should
be brief and to the point.
Unit - I
1.(a) Differentiate the concepts of optimal behaviour and human like behaviour.
(b) What a physical symbol system is and what the various components do ?
(a) List examples of intelligent systems that depend on models of the world.
(b) How does (defun car(x) (car x)) work ?
Unit - II
2.(a) Describe the way in which a problem should be represented in order to allow its solution
using a heuristic search technique.
(b) Define what is meant for a search algorithm to be complete and to be optimal ?
(c) Define what it means for a heuristic function to be admissible and to be monotonic ?
(d) Describe the operation of the A* heuristic search algorithm.
(e) Prove that the A* heuristic search algorithm is optimal when applied in conjunction with a
monotonic heuristic. State the conditions under which the algorithm is also complete and
explain why this is the case ?
4. This question considers the monkey-and-bananas problem, in which there is a monkey in a room
with some bananas hanging out of reach from the ceiling, but a box is available that will
enable the monkey to reach the bananas if the climbs onto it. Initially the monkey is at
location A, the bananas at B and the box at C. The monkey and box have height x, but if the
monkey climbs onto the box he will have height y, the same as the bananas. The actions
available to the monkey include Go from one place to another. Push an object from one place
to another, Climb onto an object and Grasp an object. Grasping results in holding the object
if the monkey and object are in the same place at the same height.
(i) Write the initial state description using a representation of your choice.
(ii) Write definitions of the four actions, providing at least some obvious preconditions,
additions and deletions.
(iii) Suppose the monkey wants to fool the observers, who have gone to lunch, by grabbing
the bananas but leaving the box in its original place. Write this as a goal (but not
assuming the box is necessarily at location C) in the language of situation calculus.
(iv) If the box is filled with bricks,its position will remain the same when the Push operator
is applied. Is this an example of the frame problem or the circumscription problem ?
Justify your answer.
Unit - III
5.(a) Explain what the terms ontological commitment and epistermological commitment mean in the
context of a language for knowledge representation and reasoning. What are the ontological
and epistemological commitments made by propositional logic and by first order logic ?
(b) You wish to construct a robotic pet cat for the purpose of entertainment. One purpose of the
cat is to scratch valuable objects when the owner is not present. Give a brief general
description of situation calculus and describe howit might be used for knowledge
representation by the robot. Include in your answer one example each of a frame axiom an
effect axiom, and a successor-state axiom, along with example definitions of suitable
predicates and function.
(c) Give a brief description of the representational frame problem, the inferential frame
problem, the qualification problem and the ramification problem.
6. What problems would be encountered in attempting to represent the following statements in
predicate logic ? It should be possible to deduce the final statement from the others :
(i) John only likes to see French movies.
(ii) It's safe to assume a move American unless explicitly told otherwise.
(iii)The Playhouse rarely shows foreign films.
(iv) People don't do things that will cause them to be in situations that they don't like.
(v) John doesn't go to the Playhouse very often.
Unit - IV
7. Explain how the Alpha-Beta Algorithm is a better way to search game trees. These two algorithms
depend on certain assumptions about how the game is played ? What are they ?
8.(a) Identify the classic parsing algorithms for parsing natural language.
(b) Make the augmented transition network for the following sentence
'The dog likes a man' explain steps.
Unit - V
9.(a) Would an expert system be a suitable technique for implementing an automate travel agent ?
(b) Explain how Bayesian Statistics provides reasoning under various kinds of uncertainty.
10.(a) Explain the differences among the three mains styles of learning :
supervised, reinforcement and unsupervised.
(b) Give short definitions of the following :
(i) Maximum Expected Utility
(ii) Intelligent Agent Architecture
(iii) Fuzzy control
(v) Problem Space(or Search Space)
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