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Posted Date: 25 Jul 2009      Posted By:: Saswato Chatterjee    Member Level: Gold  Points: 5 (₹ 1)

2009 ICSE ICSE Question paper



Course: SSLC   University/board: ICSE





Guess Paper – 2009
Class – X
Subject –English

DETAILED STUDY AND ASSESSMENT
Act I Scene 1: The Mob Rebuked

E. ASSIGNMENTS

1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Flavius

Hence! Home, you idle creatures, get you home.
Is this a holiday? What, know you not,
Being mechanical, you ought not to walk
Upon a labouring day without the sign
Of your profession? Speak, what trade art thou?
First Citizen
Why, sir, a carpenter,
Marullus
Where is thy leather apron, and thy rule?
What dost thou with thy best apparel on?
You, sir, what trade are you?

(i) Who are Flavius and Marullus? Where are they? What are they doing there? Why?

Flavius and Marullus are tribunes of Rome. They are in a street in Rome. They are questioning the comments who gathered in the street. The common people have declared themselves a holiday to celebrate the victory of and have been assembled in the Roman Street to receive triumphal with grandeur. The tribunes are annoyed at the concourses for their celebrations.

(ii) What are the “idel creatures"? Why are they called so? What makes the speaker to ask if it is a holiday?
The two citizens a carpenter and a coole are described idle creatures by one of the tribunes. Flavius is annoyed by the jubilant attitude of the commonness who have declared a holiday to celebrate the triumph of Caesar. Hence, he call them idle creatures, i.e lazy fellows who have shirked their duties. Havies is alluding a rule is Rome that on working day, the manual workers & artisan should be in their working clothes and curry tools. Hence, 2 citizens are in their best apparel violated the decree of Rome.

(iii) Give the meaning of the following:
(a) Being mechanical Being Manual worker
(b) a labouring day a working day
(c) Sign of your profession his tools & working clothes
Pick out from the extract, an example of a “sign" of a profession. They leather apron & they rule

(iv) Whom does Marullus address in the last line of the extract? What reply does he get? How does he react to the reply?

In the cast line of this extract Marullus is addressing the cobblee the does not reply directly. He play with words & say that he is a cobblo. This answer can have 2 meaning. (a) a repairer of shoes or (b) bungle or a spoiler of things. Marullus asks the cobbler to give him a direct reply.

(v) What military event has just been concluded? What ingratitude are the common people accused of in this scene?

As they have cheered pompey earliest, The allusion is to the military defeat of pompey son's is a wallay ceeasal. Pompey had died earlier is a wal against leasar. The commones had gathered to receive the triumplate with fanfare. The same artisan has hailed pompey during his triumphant procession when he was the hero of Roam before the tribunes access the people of is gratitude as they are cheering cases now.

(vi) Giving an example each, show how Flavius and Marullus are men in authority. Who among them, do you think, exercises greater authority? Why?

From the way is which they treat and speak to the artisan we can construe that both Flavius and Marullus are men in authority. Marullus donands an explanation from the carpenter for being dresteel is his best apparel & not carrying his tools Flavius sepals more authoritatively than Marullus. He rets the conore's with high distance & expresses his hostility towards cease inspite of the publics' obvious admiration for ceaser.

2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Second Citizen
A trade, sir, that I hope I may use with a safe conscience; which is, indeed, sir a mender of bad soles.
Marullus
What trade, thou knave? Thou naughty knave, what trade?
Second Citizen
Nay, I beseech you, sir, be not out with me : yet, if you be out, sir, I can mend you.

(i) What is meant y a “trade" ? Of which is the second citizen?
A trade means a job or a profession. The second citizen is a cobbler.

(ii) Why does the citizen think that he “may use" the trade with a safe conscience?

The cobbler is playing with the words ‘ Sole / Soul'. He is a mender a soles / Souls. Soul relates to conscience. Thus, he thinks that he may use the trade with a safe conscience.

(iii) What does “naughty knave" mean? What does this expression tell us about the attitude of the Romans towards artisans? Give two more examples of such expressions from the scene.
Naughty knave useless fool. The expression shows that the Romans are full of concept for the artisans. The Romans address the communes also as “idle creatures" And rehes to them as “basest mettle" i.e. lowly characters.

(iv) Give the double meaning intended in th following expression. Be not out with me: yet, if you be out, sir, I can mend you.
Not out with me : do not be angry with me. If you be out 10 it your shoes are worn out. if you have sinned.
(i) I can mend you I can repair your shoes
(ii) I can improve or reform your character

(v) Give two character traits, each with an example, of the common people in this scene.
The commonness have a disrespectful sense of humer as is shown by the cobbler. He uses a series of purs to answer the fribunes like “ I can end you", etc. They are sickle minded, they slink away with shame from their celebrations when the tribunes acceese them of in gratitude towards pompey.

3. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Wherefore rejoice? What conquest brings he home?
What tributaries follow him to Rome,
To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels?
You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things!
O you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome,
Knew you not Pompey?

(i) Who speaks these lines? To whom are these words addressed? What type of rejoioing is referred to in the extract?
Marullus adresses these lines to the commoness. The comoness have gathered in the streets of Rome, is their holiday attire to celebrate and rejoice caesuras triunpb and return from his victory over Ponpey's sons.

(ii) Who is 'he' reffered to in the first line of the extract? What message does the
speaker want to convey to his listeners through these questions?
In the first line, 'he' refers to Marullus, a pro-democratic and anti- is against being a favourite of the people. Marullus, through his questions, wants to belittle is the eyes of the connoners and point out that, victory has brought no gain for themselves

(iii) What is the conquest refereed to in the extract? Why has the conqueror not
brought any territory to Rome by his conquest?

Cesar's military conquest over popery's sons is referred here. Moreover, Popery's sons are both Romans and the war between them is a civil war which does not bring new territories or treasure to Rome.

(iv) Give the meaning of:
What tributaries follow him to Rome,
To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels?
No taxpayers, conquered cheifs, Pollow to Rome, No chiehs on prisoness of war tied to the chariot of the lonqueror, , pay respect to him.

(v) Which custom in Rome is referred to in question (iv) above?
It was as Roman lesion that the conquered chiefs are tied with chains the conqueror's chariot what and follow the conqueror during his triumphant procession through the streets of Rome.

(vi) What does the speaker think of his listeners according to the extract?
Marullus considers the commress as stare hearted people with no sense of gratitude per Pompey, their former favourite.


4 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Marullus
And when you saw his chariot but appear,
Have you not made an universal shout,
That Tiber trembled underneath her banks,
To hear the replication of your sounds
Made in her concave shores?
And do you now put on your best attire?
And do you now cull out a holiday?
That comes in triumph over Pompey's blood?

(i) Whose chariot was seen? When?

When Pompey knelled Rome as one of the triunrirates, the connoners struggled to have a glimpse of his chariot when he passed through the stress of Rome.

(ii) What is meant by an universal shout? State in your own words what happened as a consequence of the shout?
Universal shout-shout all together at once. When the lonnoness shouted all together at once on seeing the chariot of Ponpey, there where violent disturbances in the river fiber. The echoes of their shouts magnified by the hollow banks of the river made violent agitations in the river fiber.

(iii) What is meant by 'Pompey's blood'? Who comes now in triumph?

Pompey's sons are refereed to as ' Pomey's blood', casar cones in triuph over Pompey's sons.

(iv) How do the people now prepare for the triumphal entry of the person?
The connponers have declared themselves a holiday and have gathered on the steets of Rome to receive who triumphantly returns form his military conquest over Pompey's sons.

(v) At an earlier occasion how did the same people react on seeing a great ruler pass the streets or Rome?
Earlier, when Pompey, the great ruler passed the street of Rome, the commoness have gathered in large numbers and even climbed up the walls of the forts to have on glimpse of him. They even carried their children.

(vi) What does the speaker want to achieve by his speech given in the extract?
Marullus wants to fill the commoner's heart with shame and remorse for there is gratitude towards Pompey. These, remorse stricken, they will all forsake the celebration of caesae's triuples and go home which will make caesr's return a nor a athair. (an insignificant erent). In their arms and waited patiently all day lones for Pompey. When they saw his chariot, they all shouted at once cheesing Pompey loarren women so touched by theses naked ness would be cured of their infertility.

5 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Marullus
May we do so?
You know it is the feast of Lupercal.

Flavius
It is no matter, let no images
Be hung with 's trophies. I'll about
And drive away the vulgar from the streets;
So do you too, where you perceive them thick.
These growing feathers pluck'd from 's wing
Will make him fly an ordinary pitch.
Who else would soar above the view of men
And keep us all in servile fearfulness.

(i) “May we do so?" –What was Marullus supposed to do?
Marullus was suppose to remove the declarative scrts from the statues of .

(ii) What was the feast to Lupercal? How the feast was normally celebrated?
The F.O.L. was held in honour of God lupercus, a patron of sheep and sheperds. He was also considered as the God of hertility. These an the F.O.L. young man ran through the coly streets and touched spectatos with leathr straps. It was believed that.

(iii) What is meant by ‘trophies'? Why does Flavius say that no images should be
hung with 's trophies?
Trophies – decorations, usually scarts, hieng on a hero's statue. Harius wants these decorations removed from 's statues / so that will not rise high anoney the Romans) I to denolaries him.

(iv) Who are ‘the vulgar'? Why should they be driven away?
The vulgar are the commoners. These commoners should be driven away from the steets of Rome so that the event of caesr's triumph will be a failure.

(v) (a) With reference to the last four lines of the extract, state in your
own words what Flavius says to indicate that should be
checked.
(b) To what extent, according to you, is the apprehension justified?

(a) Flvius say's that is they can supress the people's enthusiasam for . It will be like pulling feathers from a halcon's wings. It will make him fly at a normal height instead of soaring our of sight in a godly manner to treat men cruelly like slaves.
(b) The apprehension is justified as we learn later that both.


(vi) How does the scene (from which the above extract is taken) reflect the changing fortunes of men in power and how does it indicate the behaviour of the common people in Rome?
The changing fortunes, the rise & hall of men is power are clearly indicated by the fall of Pompey, once a hero in the eyes of the commoners and the rise of , the enemy of Pompey and murder of his sons. The commoners are silence minded and are casually influenced to change their political locpaticse.

TEST AND EVALUATION

2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Second Citizen
Truly, sir, all that I live by is which the awl : I meddle with no tradesman's matters, nor women's matters; but withal I am, indeed, sir, a surgeon to old shoes; when they are in great dange, I recover them. As proper men as ever trod upon neat's leather have gone upon my handiwork.

Flavius

But wherefore art not in thy shop today?
Why dost thou lead these men about the streets?

(i) To which question does the Second Citizen give his reply in the first sentence in the extract? Give one example to show that the Second Citizen has earlier confused the officer by his strange replies.
(ii) Give the meaning of: “All that I live by is with the awl." What subtle humour is hinted at in this sentence?
(iii) Why does the speaker call himself a surgeon? Explain clearly the implied comparison.
(iv) Give the meaning of the following; “ As proper men as ever trod upon neat's leather, have gone upon my handiwork".
(v) What light does the sentence in question above throw on the speaker's craftsmanship?
(vi) What answer does the Second Citizen give to the following question of Flavius: “Why dost thou lead these men about the streets?" Why the reply is humours?


2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Go, go, good countrymen, and for this fault
Assemble all the poor men of your sort;
Draw them to Tiber banks, and weep your tears
Into the channel, till the lowest stream
Do kiss the most exalted shores of all.
See whe'r their basest metal be not mov'd;
They vanish tongue-tied in their guiltiness.
Go you down that way towards the Capitol:
This way wilk I. Disorbe the images
If you do find them deck'd with ceremonies.

(i) Who is speaking in the extract? To whom is he speaking in the first part of the extract, and, in the second?
(ii) What is the fault referred to in the first line of the extract?
(iii) What advice has Marullus given earlier to these people so that they might show remorse for their fault?
(iv) If that advice was not taken, what would happen?
(v) Render in your own words the following lines. Draw them to Tiber banks, and weep your tears
Into the channel, till the lowest stream
Do kiss the most exalted shores of all.
(vi) Give the meaning of :
(a) their basest metal
(b) vanish tongue-tied
© deck'd with ceremonies.

(vii) Why are the images enrobed on this day? What is the reason for the speaker to tell his companioin to ‘disrobe the images'? (2)
Act I Scene 2: Cassius Apporaches Brutus


ASSIGNMENTS


1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Caesar
Forget not, in your speed, Antonius,
To touch Calphurnia; for our elders say,
The barren, touched in this holy chase,
Shake off their sterile curse.
Antony
I shall remember;
When says ‘Do this,' it is perform'd
Caesar
Set on; and leave no ceremony out.
Soothsayer!


(i) Where does the scene take place? Why have the characters referred to in the extract gone there?
The scene of takes place in a street in Rome, Pontony, sooth sayes, etc.. have gone their to participate in the hostilities of the dupercal feast as well as to clebrate 's recent victory ovel the son's of his old enemy ponpey any command given by is performed without delay or any questions.

(ii) What is the ‘holy chase'? What is its significane?
The ‘holy chase' is the sacred race as the F.O.L. when young men ran through the Roman city streets and touched the spectators with leather straps. If was believed that barren women so touched would be cured of there is insertility.

(iii) What instructions did give to Calphurnia earlier regarding the holy chase?
Caesar instructs Calphurnia to stand directly in Antony's away when he nriens the sacred race of the helper cal feast so that she may be cured of her infertility.

(iv) Give the meaning of: (a) Shake off their sterile curse (b) ‘Do this', it is
perform'd.
(a) Cured of their insertility. Roman's belief was that sterile woman touched by the runners of the holy chase will be cured of their bareness. (b) The command is obeyed immediately. Antony remarks here that


2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :

Cassius
Bruuts, I do observer you now of late;
I have not from your eyes that gentleness
And show of love as I was wont to have.
You bear too stubborn and too strange a hand
Over your friend that loves you.
Brutus
Be not deceiv'd : if I have veil'd my look,
I turn the trouble of my countenance
Merely upon myself. Vexed I am
Of late with passions of some difference,
Conceptions only proper to myself,
Which give some soil, perhaps, to my behaviors


(i) Where are Brutus and Cassius at this item?
Brutus and Cassius are in a Rome street, slightly for from the venue of the celebrations.

(ii) Why does Brutus not go along with Caesar to the games? With whom does Brutus contrast himself? How?
Brutus accesses Brutus of certain detachment and less show of friendliness and affection from Brutus towards Cassius in the recent time.

(iii) What does Cassius accuse Brutus of?
Cassius accuse Brutus of certain detachment and less show of friendliness and affection from Brutus towards cassius in the recent times.

(iv) What, do you thin, is the motive of Cassius in professing friendship to
Brutus? What type of a person was Cassius?
Cassius, being a cunning schemer professes friendship to Brutus so that he will be able to make Brutus join the company against of Brutues seizing he oppurtunity to know about Brutus attitude towards the rise of.

(v) Give the meaning of: “ vexed I am / Of late with passions of some difference""
I am troubled now a days by conflicting feelings here, Brutus says that recently he has been in a terrible mental conflict.



3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Brutus
What means this shouting? I do fear the people
Choose for their king.

Ay, do you fear it
Then must I think you would not have it so.

Brutus
I would not, Cassius; yet I love him well.

(i) Where are Brutus and cassius at this time? Why have they come together?
Brutus and cassius are in a Roman street; slightly far from the renue of celebration. Both of them have accompanied Caesar on his way to the celebrations Brutus not being interested is sports remains there. Cassius keep company.

(ii) What reason does Brutus give here for the ‘shouting'? What was the real
reason?
Brutus feels that the people have crowned Caesar their king. Actually, the people shout when they see Caesar rejecting the nock-crown, the coronet, offered by Mark Antony.


(iii) Why was Brutus afraid that Caesar might become king?
Brutus apprehends that once Caesar becomes the king, he may become a tyrant and Rome like a despot.

(iv) When Brutus says, “I would not Cassius; yet I love him well," he is
undergoing a conflict of two emotions. What are they?
Brutus loves Caesar well as a friend, yet he fears that Caesar will grew into a despot its made the king of Rome, Thus, Brutus torn terribly between his loyalty to his friend, Caesar and his loyalty to his country, Rome. Brutus the way is which his ancestor, Junes Brutus, deterred in the freedom of Rome by driving away the tyrannical Tarquin kings.

(v) How did Cassius finally convince Brutus that Caesar should be killed? (ICSE, Feb. 1980)
Cassius, a clever manipulator, instigates Brutus under the pretext of honour and freedom, especially with freedom from Caesar in order to convince Brutus, Cassies shows that Caesar is a freble, vulnerable mortal not greaten than him. Moreond he remind.



4 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Cassius
I, as Aeneas, our great ancestor,
Did from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder
The old Anchises bear, so from the waves of Tiber
Did I the tired Caesar. And this man
Is now become a god, and Cassius is
A wretched creature, and must bend his body
If Caesar carelessly but nod on him.

(i) Who was Aeneas? Which legendary incident connected with Aeneas is referred to in the extract?
Aeneas was the founder of Rome and the ancestor of all Romans. He was a Trojan who, when Troy was captured escaped from the burning city carrying his father, Aeneas on his back.

(ii) Why does Cassius compare himself to Aeneas?
Once Cassius has saved Caesar from drawing is the rises Tiber by carrying Caesar on his back, Thus, he compares himself, to Aeneas who has saved his father from the bearing city of Troy by carrying him on his back.

(iii) Who is ‘this man'? What grudge does Cassius harbour against ‘this man'?
This man is Caesar Cassius complains that he who has once saved Caesar shall
remain miserable creature while Caesar has become as powerful as a deni-god.

(iv) Just before the extract Cassius states that he is equal to Caesar in three aspects. What are these three aspects?
Cassius states that he was born free as Caesar, he has been fed and brought up as Caesar, and he is strong enough to endure the extreme cold of winter as Caesar and Cassisu to carry the tried Caesar on his shoulder to save him from drawing.

(v) In his speech, Cassius refers to an incident in which he was much superior to Caesar. Narrate the incident.
Once when Caesar and Cassius were walking along the bankers of?? Tiber, Caesr challenged Cassius to swim along with him in the river. Cassius accepted the challenge while they were swimming against the violent current Caesar cried out for help.

(vi) Give one example from the scene, which makes you feel that Cassius is a democrat in his views.
Cassius laments the sony state of Rome which at present has ony casesar to boast about Earlier Rome was full of great men like, L.J Beretus who defended Rome against the turanny of the Tarquins.


5 Read the extra given below and answer the questions that follow:

When went there by an age, since the great flood,
But it was fam'd with more than with one man?
When could they say, till now, that talk'd of Rome,
That her wide walks encompass'd but one man?
Now is it Rome indeed, and room enough,
When there is in it but one only man.
O, you and I have heard our fathers say,
There was a Brutus once that would have brook'd
Th'eternal devil to keep his state in Rome
As easily as a king.

(ii) What is referred to as ‘the great flood? Why is this expression used in the
next?
According to classical mythology, zeus determined to destroy the sinful world, unleashed a great deluge on earth referred to as the Deuction flood, it is used to indicate age old times.

(ii) Compare the present age with the olden times as far as Rome is concerned.
In the present age, Rome, has none but Caesar to boast of But is the olden times, is every age, Rome had more than one great man.

(iii) What arguments does Cassius give (just before the extract) to show Caesar is not superior to Brutus?
Cassius argues that Caesar is not superior to Brutus because the two names ‘Brutus' and ‘Caesar' sound the same and when writer together, both are equally hair Morors , if you want to use them to conjure spirits one name is as good as the other to raise the spirits.

(iv) “There was a Brutus". Who was this Brutus?
The Brutus allowed here is duchies Junilel Brutus as ancestor of Brutus who has deferred the freedom of Rome by driving away the tyrannical Tarquins kings in the past.

(vi) With reference to one incident, state how Cassius was a shrewd manipulator.
Cassius by is rocking the name of Brutus ancestor, strilee the fire of honors and prde in the heart of Brutus this helps him to win Brutus partially to his side.



6 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Caesar
He reads much,
He is a great observer, and he looks
Quite through the deeds of men. He loves no plays,
As thou dost, Antony; he hears no music;
Seldom he smiles, and smiles in such a sort
As if he mock'd himself, and scorn'd his spirit
That could be mov'd to smile at anything.
Such men as he be never at heart's ease
Whiles they behold a greater than themselves.


(i) Where is Caesar at this time? Of whom is he speaking?
Caesar, with his train, has returned from the celebration and is now on street in Rome. He speaks here of Cassius.

(ii) Do the earlier episodes in the play suggest that Caesar has judged this person's
character accurately? Explain briefly.
We find that Caesar is a shrerecued judge of human character. We never see Caesar in conversation with Cassius. Cassius as it he is deliberately avoiding him.

(iii) Immediately before this speech, what type of man has Caesar said he prefers?
Caesar had said that he prefers that men to this spare men. He likes to avoid spare men like Cassius.

(iv) What personal physical weakness is revealed by Caesar in the remaining part of this speech? What contrast is created by this revelation with the least two lines quoted above?
Caesar asks Antony to come to his right side as no is deaf in the left ear. In the previous a liens, Caesar asserts his in domitable courage and his sense o inviolability. This contrasts jarringly when he mentioned that he is deaf in one ear.


7 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Casa
I could tell you more news too: Marullus and Flavius, for pulling scarfs off Caesar's images, are put to silence. Fare you well. There was more foolery yet, if I could remember it.



(i) When does Casca say this? To whom?
When Casca narrator to Brutus and Cassius the happenings at the supernal festival and Caesar's triumphant celebrations, He informs of the murder of Harius and Marulus for their disrespect to Caesar.

(ii) Narrate briefly the ‘news' that Casca has already related.
Prompted by Brutus and Cassius, Casca narrators the events at the festivities. He says that Caesar was offered a coronet, a mocle crown, three times of Antony and each time Caesar refused it with growing reluctance.

(iii) Explain “ pulling scarfs off Caesar's images" and “put to silence".
The Romans decorated the statues of thesauri with colorful scarfs as part of them for this show of disrespect, towards Caesar.


(iv) What does “put to silence" reveal about Caesar's character?
The exclusion of Harvius and Marullus for their show of disrespect towards Caesar hours the seed of tyranny and despotism in Caesar.


(v) What reason for their action does Flavius give in the opening scene of the
play?
Havius says that removing the decorations from the statues of Caesar is like pulling the feather's from a falcon's wing. Thus deprived, it will make him fly at an ordinary height instead of soaring high up is a godly manner to treat men cruelly like slave.



F. TEST AND EVALUATION

1 Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow.

Cassius
Then, Brutus, I have much mistook your passion
By means whereof this breast of mine hath buried
Thoughts of great value, worthy connotations
Tell me, good Brutus, can you see you see your face?
Brutus
No, Cassius: for the eye sees not itsefl
But by reflection, by some other things.

(i) In what way did Cassuius mistake Brutus' feelings (passion)?
(ii) How was the misunderstanding cleared by Brutus?
(iii) What was the consequence of this misunderstanding on Cassius?

Thrilled by this, the commoners roared with delight. Then carsar oppered to them his throat to cut which excited then mone. Immediatley caesar hainted and tell down. When he regained
(iv) Given the meaning of : “ for the eye sees not itself But reflection, by some other things."
(v) Who volunteers to be a mirror to reflect the qualities of Brutus to himself (Brutus )?
(vi) According to Cassius, what do the people in high position in Rome say about Brutus, and about the condition of the people?



2 Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow:

Cassius
I know that virtue to be in you. Brutus,
As well as I do know your outward favour.
Well, honour is the subject of my story.
I cannot tell what you and other men.
Think of this life, but, for my single self,
I had as life; but, for my single self,
I had as lief not be; as live to be
I had as lief not be, as live to be
In awe of such a thing as I myself.

(i) Where are Brutus and Cassius at this time? What is Cassius' purpose in this speech?
(ii) Give the meaning of :
…. But for my single self, I had
as life not be as live to be
In awe of such a thing as I myself.
(iii) Given two incidents which Cassius uses later in this discussion to indicate that Caesar was as weak as any human being.
(iv) What happens immediately after Cassius' Speech? How does it help Cassius to rouse the feelings of Brutus against Caesar?
(v) What stand does Brutus take, a few minutes later, which makes Cassius glad that his efforts have not been in vain?


3 Read the extract giben below and answer the question that follow:
Re-enter Caesar and his Train

Brutus
The game are done and Caesar is returning.

Cassius
As they pass by, pluck Casca by the sleeve,
And he will, after his sour fashion, tell you
What hath proceeded worthy of note to-day.
Brutus
I will do so. But, look you. Cassius.
Conciseness, he appeared to the crowd to forgive him if he had done or said anything offensive.

(i) What are the “games" Brutus is talking about? Why were they held? When? Who speaks of the games earlier in the scene? Why?
(ii) Explain why Cassius says “after his sour fashion? What part did Casca have in the actual murder of Casesar? Who mentions this later in the play? What did he state?
(iii) What is the meaning of “worthy of note"? State briefly what Casca related, bringing out the “sour fashion"?
(iv) To whom is Brutus drawing Cassius' attentin when he says, “But look you,
Cassius? Give his comments on each of them.
(v) what information does Casca later give them about Marullus and Flavius? What trait of Caesar's character is shown in this incident?


5 Read the extract give belwo and answer the question that follow:

Cassius
I will this night,
But soft, I pray you : what, did Caesar swound?
Casca
He fell down in the market – place, and foam'd at mouth, and was speechiess.
Brutus
Tis very like, he hath the falling-sickness.
Cassius
No, Caesar hath it not; but you, and I,
And honest Casca, we have the falling-sickness.
Casca

I know not what you mean by that, but I am sure Caesar fell down. If the tag-rag people did not clap him and hiss him, according as he pleas'd and displeas'd them, as they use to do the players in the theatre, I and no true man.

(i) What is the occasion referred to in the above dialogue?
(ii) Why did Caesar “swound"?
(iii) What does Cassius mean by saying that Brutus, Casca, and he
himself have the falling-sickness?
(iv) How did the tag-rag people, according to Casca's account, react
to Caesar's behaviour?
(v) Who were the tag-rag people?

Answers

(i) The occasion referred to is Caesar's visit to the venue of the games which were held during the celebration of the feast of Lupercalia.

(ii) Caesar swooned because of the excessive strain of having to refuse the crown which had been offered to him by Antony. Inwardly Caesar wanted to accept the crown; and he made only a show of refusing it. Refusing the crown against his wishes exerted a big strain on his mind.

(iii) Cassius means to say that he himself, Brutus, and Casca are too humble and submissive in dealing with Caesar, Cassius is trying to incite Brutus and Casca against Caesar; and he, therefore, say that the attitude of all them towards Caesar is servile.

(iv) The tag-rag people clapped or hissed as Caesar's behaviour pleased or displeased them . If the people felt pleased with what Caesar siad or didi, they cheered joufully. But if the people felt displeased with anything that Caesar did or said, they hissed to convey their displesure. Thus the behaviour of an audience in a theatre because the audience too cheers or hisses as the actors on the stage please them or displease them.

(v) The tag-rag people were the multitude of common people attending the games. The phrase “ tap-rag people" means the crowd of undisciplined people.

5 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Cassius

I will this night,
In several hands, in at his window throw,
As if they came from several citizens,
Writings, all tending to the great opinion,
That Rome holds of his name; wherein obscurely
Caesar's ambition shall be glanced at,
And after this, let Caesar seat him sure;
For we will shake him, or worse days endure.

(i) When does Cassius speak these words? Whom is he referring to in the second
line?
(ii) What is the purpose of these writings? Where are he referring to in the thrown?
(iii) What effect is produced on this person when he reads it?
(iv) Explain the meaning of “ several hands" and “obscurely"
(v) What aspect of Cassius' character do the above words illustrate?
Give two methods used by Cassius to win over Brutus.


Act I Scene 3: Storm and Stress

E. ASSIGNMENTS

1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Casca
Are not you mov'd when all the sway of earth
Shakes like a thing unfirm? O Cicero!
I have seen tempests, when the scolding winds
Have riv'd the knotty oaks; and I have seen
Th' ambitious ocean swell and rage and foam,
To be exalted with the threat'ning clouds;
But never till tonight, never till now,
Did I go through a tempest dropping fire.


(i) Where is Casca at this time? In what state has he come there? To whom is he speaking?
Casca is in a Roman street. He has come there with his sword drawn. He is now speaking to cicero.

(ii) Give the meaning of the following:
(a) all the sway of earth / Shakes like a thing unfirm?
(b) The ambitious ocean sell and rage and foam,
To be exalted with the threat'ning clouds.
(c) All the creatures on earth tremble like on unfirm thing.
(d) The rising ocean swell with waves and on a tempest and are raised up to the sky.

(iii) What are the “scolding winds"? What did they do?
The scolding winds are the raging tempest which had tom apart knotted oaks. As the fierce tempest creates huge waves in the ocean which appear to be rising to the sky.

(iv) What did Casca see which he had never seen in his life earlier?
Never before had Casac seen storm dropping lightening and thunder blots.

(v) What does he conclude immediately after the extract about the Calamities?
Casca concludes that the Calamities of the right are either due to a civil war among the gods or due to the anger of the gods who are send destruction to the arrogant world.

(vi) What is the next day supposed to be? What will to be a fatal day? Who had warned about that day?
The next day would be the ides of March when the senators meet at the capital to crown Caesar the king. The booth sayer has warned Caesar to be aware of the Jokes of March.


2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Cicero
Why, saw you any thing more wonderful?

Casca
A common slave – you know him well by sight –
Held up his left hand, which did flame and burn
Like twenty torches join'd; and yet his hand,
Not sensible of fire, remain'd unscorch'd.

(i) Narrate in your own words the “wonderful" sigh seen by Casca as given in the extract?
During the terrible right, Casca saw the world sight of a common slave with his left hand up and in flames his hand burned very brightly like a score of torches joined together. However the man was insensitive to the flames and retain unescorted.

(ii) Besides the sight referred to tin (i) above, describe three unnatural sights that Casca narrates after this extract.
Casca saw a line wondering in the streets near the capital. The lion started at him and walked away arrogantly without hearing him. Then he saw a group of ghastly women their face distorted with fear. These women said they saw men.

(iii) What does Casca believe about the unnatural events?
Casca believed that the unnatural events are prophetic signs / loners to the future happenings on Rome.

(iv) In what way is Casac's belief a contrast to the one expressed by Cicero about these events?
Eventhough Cicero agrees with Casca regarding the storage events of the night, he feels that different persons construe different meaning in their own ways as to the reasons to the strange events.

(v) What impact do these strange things have on Caesar, as well as on the
audience?
We find later in the play that Caesar had been disturbed by the storm. The audience equates the strange happenings to oners of danger to Caesar.


3 Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow:
Cassius
I know where I will wear this dagger then:
Cassius from bondage will deliver Cassius:
Therein, ye gods, you make the weak most strong:
Therein, ye gods, you tyrants do defeat
Nor stony tower, nor walls of beaten brass,
Nor airless dungeon, nor strong links of iron,
Can be retentive to the strength of sprit.

(i) What were a group of people planning on the following day, which makes Cassius say that he would “Wear this dagger again? How does Cassius try to prevent that plan from being put into operation?
The senators are planing to crown caesar the king the following day cassius her already transformed a group of noble men to rise against caesar and eventually assasinate him


(ii) Why did Cassius say earlier that the Romans now do not have manly courage?
Cassius feels that Romans had allowed an unworthy caser to rise to power. The Romans do not rise against caesar who might grow into a tyrant. Thus to Cassius Roman's lack manly courage.

(iii) Give the meaning of : “ Cassius from bondage will deliver Cassius"
Cassius sears that he will be treated like as lane by Caear the king. To me himself from this slavery he will kill himself.

(iv) What does Cassius say about the “Strenght of the spirit" in the extract?
Cassius assets that no means of imprisonment whether it is strong tower or an airless dungeon, can be retentive or imprison a determined spirit of minds.

(vi) How does from his speech as an ardent lover of freedom and democracy. He say that no kind of imprisonment can defeat a strong mind.
He prefers to deliver himself from the slavish like under Caeser by killing himself.



4 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Cassius
And why should Caesar be a tyrant them?
Poor man! I know he would not be a wolf.
But that he sees the Romans are but sheep:
He were no lion, were not Romans hinds
Those that with haste will make a mishty fire.
Begin it with weak straws; what trash is Rome,
What rubbish, and what offal, when it serves
For the base matter to illuminate
So vile a thing as Caesar!


(i) Who is referred to as a “poor man"? On what condition he would not have been a wolf or a lion?
Here, the poor man is caesar, It the Romans were not as cowardly and meak as sheep and deer, he would not have grown as powerful as a wolf or a lion.

(ii) Explain how the sentence “Those that….. weak straws" refers to Caesar. In what way is Caesar “vile" in the eyes of Cassius?
Men who want to make a huge fire in a hurry, so with easily burning materials like dry straw Caesar, who wants to become the king of Rome at the earliest explots the weakness.


(iii) Does Cassius blame Caesar or Rome? Give three reasons given by him for the greatness of caesar at this time.
Cassius, blames nor Caesar, but the Romans who are cowardly and wonarish. They have allowed Caesar to grow in power. Cassius acknowledges that Caesar is like a wolf compared to the sheepish Romans.

(iv) What does Casaca extend to Cassius as a sign of fellowship? What does he say, he is willing to do?
Casca offers his head to Cassius as a sign of friendship. He assures Cassius that he is willing to go, any extent with him in order to mitigate Cassius fears and grief's.
And meakness of the worthless Romans to achieve his goal. To Cassius, Caesar is not worthy of becoming the ruler of Rome.

(v) What appointment must Cassius and Casca keep later that night? Where will
these friends meet? What will be the purpose of their meeting?
Cassius and Casca will meet the other Roman conspirators later that night, at Pompey's porch. They will then discuss the assassination of Caesar and join Brutus at his home to make him join the conspiracy.

5 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Cinna
I am glad on't, What fearful night is this!
There's two or three of us have senn strange sights.
Cassius
Am I not stay'd for? Tell me.
Cinna
Yes, you are. O Cassius, if you could
But win the noble Brutus to our party-
Cassius
Be you content. Good Cinna, take this paper…….


(i) Where are Cinna and Cassius at this juncture? Who else was with them?
Cinna and Cassius, along with Casca are on a steet in Rome.


(ii) Why does Cinna say “ I am glad on't? Why was he here?
When Cassius informs, Cinna that Casca had also become one of the conspirators, Cinna expresses his happiness. He had come there searching for Cassius.

(iii) Earlier in this scene, which other person describes the “fearful night"? Mention two “ strange sights" this person had seem.
Earlier, Casca relates to Cicero about the terrible right Casca had seen a common slare with his left hand raised and on flames but insensitive to the flame. He had also encountered a lion roaring is the Roman streets. The lion, on seeing Casca, started at him and walked away arrogantly without harming him.

(iv) Explain “stay'd for" Point out clearly why Cassius asks the question" ‘Am I not stay'd for?
Stay'd fro waited for Cassius is eager to know whether the conspirator have gathered at Pompey's theatre. He also probably wants to point to Casca that he was not alone in his enterprise against meeting Caesar.

(v) Why was Cinna eager for Brutus to join their party? What does Cassius have in mind when he says “Be you content"? What does he now instruct Cinna to do in connection with Brutus?
(ICSE, Nov. 1980)
Brutus is regarded and respected very highly by the Roman. Brutus joining the conspiracy will be a saving grace to the conspirators. Cassius wants to reassure Cinna that Brutus will join them as one of the conspirators. Cassius had already won a part of Brutus to his side and he is consider that in his next meeting with Brutus, he will be able to win Brutus completely. Then he instructs Cinna to place the letters after this and he asks him to go to Ponepy's porch.

F. TEHST AND EVALUTION

1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Now could, I, Casca, name to thee a man
Most like this dreadful night,
That thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roars
As doth the lion in the Capitol;
A man no mightier than thyself or me
In personal action, yet prodigious grown,
And fearful as these strange eruptions are.

(i) Who is the man “Most like this dreadful night"? Why does Cassius speak of
the man by comparing him to the lion?
(ii) How does Cassius describe the night? What does he say he has done such a night?
(iii) State in your own words, how Cassius accuses Casca of a weak human nature.
(iv) How does Cassius interpret the unnatural occurences in nature?

(v) Give the meaning of :
In person action, yet prodigious growth,
And feather, as these strange eruptions are.
(vi) Give two incidents given by Cassius earlier in the play to show that the man
referred to in the extract was “no mightier than thyself or me".


2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Cassius
Be you content, Good Cinna, take this paper,
And look you lay it in the praetor's chair,
Where Brutus may but find it; and throw this
In at his window; set this up with wax
Upon old Brutus statue: all this done,
Repair to Pompey's porch, where you shall find us.

(i) To whom does Cassius address these words? Why does he say,
“Be you content"?
(ii) what paper is referred to? At whose window is it to be thrown in? What
impact would the paper have on the recipent?
(iii) Who is ‘old Brutus? Why is he famous in Rome? How did Decius Brutus take pride in his heritage?
(iv) Why should Cinna go to Pompey's porch? Name four people who are likely to be there.
(v) Why will Brutus be of importance on the next morning according to Casca and Cassius?

Act II Scene 1. Brutus Chooses

A. PLOT DEVELOPMENT


1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Lucius
I will, my lord,
Brutus
It must be by his death: and, for my part,
I know no personal cause to spurn at him,
But for the general. He would be crown'd:
How that might change his nature, there's the question:
It is the bright day that brings forth the adder,
And that craves wary walking.

(i) Where does this scene take place? Who is Lucius? What had he been asked to do?
The Scene takes place in Brutus orchard Lucius is the servant of Brutus. Brutus has asked him to light a candle in his study room and intimate him other Lucius has done so.

(ii) In what mood is Brutus? What does it refer to? Whose death is suggested?
Brutus is in a terrible mental conflict Caesac's death is suggested here, It here refers to the prevention of Caesar being crowned and be coming an undisputed despot of Rome.

(iii) Who has convinced Brutus to take such a step? What is the motive of Brutus for taking such a decision as expressed in the extract?
Cassius has convinced him to decide that Caesar's murder was essential for the commoners deed. Brutus, though has no personal motires against Caesar, Chooses to assasirate Caesar for the good of Rome. This decision o Brutus reveals that he is a staunch patriot, he is an idealist incapable of correctly accessing the character and He is a naïve politician who makes enormous mistakes.

(iv) What danger does Brutus foresee if the person is crowned as a king? How is this danger expressed by referring to the “ bright day" and the “adder"?
The crowding of Casar, Brutus fears, might change the character of Caesel good man to a despot. Caesal is good now is his tight days, he may become villous first like the serpents that come out on sunny day.

(v) Give the meaning of: “ And that craves wary walking."
Serpents with a deadly poison emerges out during bright days and one should walk carefully and be aware of them.

(vi) What are your feelings for Brutus at his juncture? Give a reason to justify your feelings.
Brutus stauch patrist, is made by scheming Cassius to decide to murder Cesar for the good of Rome Brutus, thus undoes a terrible mental conflict due to his loyalty to his friends Caesar and also his beloved country Rome. Piriable Brutus.


2 Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow:
Bruts
Then, lest he may, prevent. And, since the quarrel
Will bear no colour for the thing he is,
Fashion it thus: that what he is, augmented,
Would run to these and these extremities;
And therefore think him as a serpent's egg
Which, hatch'd, would, as his kind, grow mischievous,
And kill him in the shell.


(i) “ So Caesar may". What may Caesaer do? Your answer must refer to the metaphor of the ladder, used by Brutus in his speech. How does Brutus intend to prevent Caesar from doing so?
Brutus, Metaphorically, using the image of a ladder, to explains a young man's progress to the lofty levels & the society. He says that it is a known fact that humility serves as a ladder for an ambition man to rise to a powerful position. When he rises high, the climbers pay attention upward, when he reaches the top of the ladder, he forgets the ladder which has helped him to climb up and rejects it. In the same manner, Caesar may take advantage of his present goodness and his favorable opinion of him among the Romans to fulfil his ambition of becoming the king. Once he is crowed the king, he may com the humble Romans and rule over them like a tyrant.


(ii) Give the meaning: “And, since the quarrel/ Will bear no colour for the thing he is / Fashion it thus."
Brutus says that there is no Cause to quarrel with Caesar for what he is at present he would like to put his reasoning in this manner.

(iii) What is meant by augmented? How can Caesar be augmented? How had there already been an attempt to augment him?
Augmented increased Caesar's present power can be augmented by crowing him the king of Rome. Already the Romans are with Caesar and there has been an attempt though mockingly to crown him the king of the supernal festival Mark Antony has offered Caesar Caesar a corronet, a molk crwon thrice which Caesar had refused. The crowd were thrilled by this influx.


(iv) To whom is a serpent's egg compared? What does Brutus want to communicate by using comparison of a serpent's egg?
Caesar is compared to a serpent's egg. If is natural for a serpent when hatched from it's egg to become cruel and so it is better to kill the serpent in the shell itself in the same manner, Brutus wants to say that caesar may become.

(v) What price would Brutus pay later by preventing a “ serpent's egg" from being hatched?
Brutus pays for his decision to kill Caesar both publicly and privately. Rome folds to the tyranny of the 3 men after Caesar's death and he loses portia, his wife. Actually he destroys his personal life as well as the republic which he was to protect.


3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Brutus
This good. Go to the gate: somebody knocks
Since Cassius first did whet me against Caesar,
I have not slept.
Between the acting of a dreadful thing
And the first motion, all the interim is
Like a phantasma, or a hideous dream;
The genius and the mortal instruments
Are then in council; and the state of man,
Like to a little kingdom, suffers then
The nature of an insurrection.

(i) Who is knocking at the gate? Why has he come?
Faction of conspirators is knocking at the gate. He has come to with his
Caesar's assassination with Brutus and convert him completely to support their scheme.

(ii) What is the impact of Cassius' earlier discussion on Brutus?
Cassius earlier discusses with Brutus regarding the rise of Caesar and the consequent misery of Rome had made Brutus their about it through he was not entirely a supports of it.


(ii) In what type of mental frame is Brutus? Why does he compare his mental
condition to a nightmare or a horrid dream?
Brutus is in a state of mental dilemma from between his loyalty towards his beloved friend Caesar and his loyalty towards his beloved country. Rome the decision has made but not the act. Thus the extension between the discussion action is extreme mental agorny as is it is a fearful fantasy.

(iv) Give the meaning of (a) all the interim is like a phantasm. (b) the genius and the mortal instruments ? Are then in council.
(a)The interval between the first impulse to do a dreadful act and his performance, is like a horrid dream. (b) The national powers and the passions of the body are engaged on heated arguments.

(v) In the last lines of the extract, the mental condition of Brutus is compared to a civil war. Explain how the comparison is made.
By comparing his trouble turned mind to the troubled state of a small kingdom which suffers the result of it's subject.

4 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Brutus
They are faction. O conspiracy,
Sham'st thou to show thy dangerous brow by night,
When evils are most free? O, then by day
Where wilt thou find a cavern dark enough
To mask thy monstrous visage? Seek none, conspiracy;
Hide it in smiles and affability:
For if thou path, thy native semblance on,
Not Erebus itself were dim enough
To hide thee from prevention.

(i) Who comes after this extract? How are they dressed? Who informs Brutus of their arrival?
The conspirators Cassius, Casca, Decius, cinna, Mutellus and Trebonious enter immediately after Brutus has said these words lucius Brutus servant informed him of their arrival. The conspirators have pulled down their hats about their faces an pulled down hats and raised cloaks.

(ii) What is meant by the ‘faction' and ‘thy dangerous brow'?
The faction referred to here are the group of conspirators. ‘thy dangerous frows' you dangerous faces. Brutus uses personification here to adress conspiracies.

(iii) How does conspiracy disguise itself at night and during the day?
Conspiracy is ashamed to show it's face deeding night and conceals it's face on pulled down hats and raised callous of cloaks. During daytime conspiracy discusses as courteous smiles and endless.

(iv) What is referred to as Erebus? If conspiracy were to appear with its ‘native semblance on', what would happen?
Rrebus is hell if Conspiracy was to appear with it's original face, even hell will not be dark enough to conceal it and to prevent people from recognising it.

(v) Why is it necessary to disguise the conspiracy? Give two of the precautions taken by the conspirators to hide the conspiracy.
It is necessary to disguise conspiracy since the conspirational money will be spoiled if people come to know about it. The conspirators have chosen the dark terrible night to meet together and also they have hidden their faces on pulled down hats and raised cloaus.


Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Brutus
What need we any spur but our own cause
To prick us to redress? What other bond
Than secret Romans, that have spoke the word
And will not palter? And what other oath
Than honesty to honesty engag'd
That this shall be, or we will fall for it?

(i) Who are referred to as the ‘we? What is ‘our own cause? State in your own words how the cause itself is a spur?
‘We' here refers to the conspirators. Brutus says that our own Cause, i.e. the assassinations of Caesar to safeguard the democratic tradition of Rome is inspiring force.

(ii) Who had suggested the idea of taking an oath? Why did Brutus dismis that idea? Was Brutus' decision wise? Why?
When cassing suggested that the conspirators take on oath of secrecy and commitment, Brutus objects saying that they are true Romans united by the justice of their noble cause. It was unwise of Brutus to preventing the conspirators from a solemn oath. The conspirators not taking an oath has its own consequences as the news of the conspiracy gets leaked out and puts all of them in a precarious situation.

(iii) Explain what is meant by, “honesty to honesty engag'd? Why is honesty very important for Brutus and his men?
The word of honour given by one honest men to another. The word of honor is very significant to Brutus and his men since in the word given is broken, their plans and even their lives will be in ruins.

(iv) Give the meaning of: “That this shall be, or we will fall for it".
Brutus ascertains that the word given among the conspirators is stronger than any oath. It should be like that or else all of them will be destroyed.

(v) According to Brutus, who normally takes an oath?
According to Brutus, priests, cowards and unscrupulous people with a mean –mind and people who lock courage and strength normally take an oath.

(vi) How dies Brutus convince his group to uphold Roman nobility rather than depend on an oath?
Brutus says to his group that a noble Roman keeps up his oath given to another honest Roman and does not break even on segment of it. He also says that their cause was enough to find them to secrecy.



5 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Brutus
O, name him not; let us not break with him;
For he will never follow anything
That other men begin.

Cassius
Then leave him out.

Casca
Indeed he is not fit.

Decius
Shall no man else be touch'd out but only Caesar?

(i) Who is ‘hi'? What did Brutus want to leave him out of? What reason had just been given in his favour?
‘Him here refers to ciero. Brutus wanted to leave him out of the conspiracy. The old age our seem of cicero will win over the opinion of the people to approve the action of the conspirators if he was one among them.

(ii) Explain “let us not break with him". Why does Brutus say this?
Let us not reveal our plans to hi. Brutus says that ciero will never follow anything what other men begin. He also fears that he may lose the leadership of the conspiracy to an old man.


(iii) What is the meaning here of ‘touch'd? Who else, does cassius now mention, should be ‘touch'd? What is his reason?
Touch'd – killed. Cassius mentions the name of Mark Antony also to be killed Cassius says that Antony is a cunning plotter and has many resources to his advantage so that he can cause harm to the conspirators.

(iv) Brutus overrides Cassius. Why?
Brutus says that they were only purgess and not butchers because killing Antony will make their plan bloody one. He also wants himself to be the decision makes among the conspirators.

(v) In his turn, Cassius does not agree with Brutus' ideas. State the objection put forth by Cassius and tell how his objection was later justified.
Cassius object by saying that he fears Antony because of his deep loyalty and love towards Caesar would make him take vengance on the conspirators. The apprehension of Cassius is justified because later in the play. Antony wages war against the conspirators and destroys them.


5 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:]

Cassius
For in the ingrafted love he bears to Caesar
Brutus
Alas, good Cassius, do not think of him.
If he love caesar, all that he can do
Is to himself, take thought and die for Caesar:
And that were much he should; for he is given
To sports, to wildness, and much company.

Trebonius
There is no fear in him; let him not die,
For he will live, and laugh at this hereafter.


(i) What is the occasion for the dialogue?

When the conspirators assemble is Brutus; orchard to discuss the conspiracy.


(ii) What is meant by ingrafted lvoe?
Engrafted love deeply –rooted love.

(iii) Name the person being talked about in the dialogue.

Mark Antony

(iv) Why does Brutus dismiss Cassius' fear of the at person?
Brutus says that Antony was a limb of Caesar and he would be likeless after the death of Caesar. In addition he says that Antony was a fun loving person who would not cause any harm to them.


8 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Portia
Dwell I but in the suburbs
Of your good pleasure? If it be no more.
Portia is Brutus' harlot, not his wife.

Brutus
You are my true and honourable wife,
As ear to me as are the ruddy drops
That visit my sad heart.

If this were true, them should I know this secret.


(i) Give the meaning of: “Dwell I but in the suburbs/ Of your good pleasure"?
Do I live only on the outer edges of your pleasure / In Elizebeathan times, the suburbs of England were the residences of narloss. Portia says that she is not a harbot of Brutus who is only for his carnal pleasure.


(ii) Explain briefly why Portia thinks that Brutus is worried about something.
Portia thinks that Brutus is behaving in an leniently manner toward her which he does not normally do Brutus also is in a confused state of mind by which he is instantly getting irrigated.

(iii) What has Portia just said to indicate that she belongs to the inner circle of Brutus' life?
Portia says that there exists a bond of marriage between them in which she can share his secrets.


(iv) What does Brutus mean when he refers to ‘the ruddy drops' and his ‘sad heart'? Why is he feeling this despair?

Ruddy drops red blood drops, sad heart somoful heart Brutus is desperate because of the mental conflict going on inside him by which he is not able to take a decision?


(v) Whose daughter was Portia? Why is she proud of being ‘A woman well-reputed?
Portia was the daughter of Cato an eminent scholar daughter an eminent scholar and a person who fought against Caesar and while of noble Bruuts who is considered the noblest of all the Romans.


(vi) What proof does Portia give of her strength of character and power of endurance?
Portia makes a cut on her thigh in order to prove her strength of character and power of endurance.
Act II Scene 2 : Caesar Chooses

ASSIGNMENTS

1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:


Enter Calphurnia

Chalphurnia
What mean you, Caesar? Think you to walk forth?
You shall not stir out of your house today.

Ceasar

Caesar shall forth: the things that threatened me
Ne'er looked but on my back; when they shall see
The face of Caesar, they are vanished?


(i) In what mood does Calphurnia speak to Caesar? Why does she warm him? When earlier had he been warned of this day?
Calphurnia speaks to Caesar in a frightened and agitated mood. She had a night marish dream in which she saw Romes killing Caesar. She considered it as a portent for the fothcoming danger to Caesar and warns him of it. Caesar had earlier been warned of this ides of March by a soothsayer on the feast of supercal.


(ii) What has Caesar noticed about the night? What did he ask his servant to do them? Why?
Teasar noticed the disturbed state of heaven as well as the earth (i.e., the thunder storm). He also finds that Calpurnia has shouted thrice in her sleep for help. He asked the servant to bid the priests make a scarified and instimate him about their opinion of his success s he become off-late superstitious and believed in such things.


(iii) Caesar says: “Caesar shall forth" On what are Calphurnia's fears based? State two unusual things which she has heard to have happened.
Calpurina's fear are based on her rightmore about Caesar and also the strange sights witnessed by the watchman. She has heard that a lioness had given birth to a cub is the streets and graves have opened and let the dead come out.


(iv) What does Caesar say later about cowards? What does he say in the extract to show that he is not threatened?
Caesar say's that cowards die is inagiration many times before their death. He says that dangers only threaten him at his back and when they see his face, they disappear.


(v) What aspect of the character of Calphurnia as well as of Caesar is hinted at in the extract?
In the extract, Calpurnia is portrayed as a concerned wile Caesar is depicted as a bold and courageous man.



1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow

Calphurnia
Caesar, I never stood on ceremonies,
Yet now they fright me. There is one withim,
Besides the things that we have heard and seen,
Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch.
A lioness hath whelped in the streets,
And graves have yawn'd and yielded up their dead.

(i) What is meant by, “I never stood on ceremonies"? What is Caesar's normal opinion on such things?

I never believed in oners. Caesar normally does not believe in such portents. He disregards calplpurnia;s fears.


(ii) Mention any three other signs enumerated by Calphurnia in her speech. Why does she narrate such sights at this time?
Feirce warriors of fire were seen fighting in the clouds, from which blood dropped down on the capitol. The noise of battle nested through the ari, dying men groaned while ghosts shireked and screamed in the stress she narrates such things is order to convince Caesar about her fears to prevent him from going out that day.


(iii) Mention any three other signs enumerated by Calphurnia in her speech. Why does she narrate such sights at this time?
Calpurnia is very much concerned about her husband's welfare and is terrified at the thought of the danger coming upon Caesar.


(iv) What is Caesar's reaction to Calphurnia's fears? What does he decide to do?
Caesar says that nothing can be avoided if it is proposed by gods. He decides to go the senate house.


(v) What does Caesar a little later do to indicate that death is inevitable?
Caesar says that death is the most certain thing to happen yet all people fear it. This seemed strange to Caesar.


1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Calphurnia

Alas my lord,
Your wisdom is consum'd in confidence.
Do not go froth today. Call it my fear
That keeps you in the house, and not your own.
We'll send Mark Antony to the Senate House,
And he shall say you are not well today.
Let me upon my knee prevail in this.

Caesar

Mark Antony shall say I am not well.
And for thy honour I will stay at home.
(Enter Decius)
Here's Decius Brutus, he shall tell them so.


(i) Where are Calphurnia and Caesar at this moment?
A room is Caesar's house.


(ii) State two reasons offered by Calphurnia for wanting Caesar to stay at home.
Calpurnia wants to stay at she dreamt thrice that Caesar ws killed by Romans. She also tells that she believed the terrible night as a portent for the forthcoming danger.


(iii) Bring out three arguments Decius puts forward to make Caesar change his mind.
Decius interprets blood dream in a different way that the Romans taking blood from Caesar's statue would revive Rome. He says that the senators would change their mind of crowning Caesar. He also says that the people might think that caesar is a traid.


(iv) Explain clearly in your own words the meaning of “your wisdom is consum'd in confidence". Was Calphurnia correct in he judgement for her husband ? Why?
You are so over confident that you cannot make a wise decision Calphurnia's fears seem true because later is the play, Caesar is assassinated which could have been avoided if he had to calpurnia's words.


(v) What is revealed of Calphurnia's character in above words? How is she contrasted with Portia who appears in the previous scene?
Calpurnia is a meek and concerned wife whereas Portia is a bold and confident wife who demands things from Brutus regarding his disturbed state of mind .



1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Decius

Most mighty Caesar, let me know some cause,
Lest I be laughed at when I tell them so.

Caesar
The cause is my will. I will not come.
That is enough to satisfy the Senate.
But for your private satisfaction,
Because I love you, I will let you know.
Calphurnia here, my wife, stays me at home.
She dreamt to-night….


(i) Where are the speakers at this moment? What day is this?
Decius and Caesar are is a room in Caesar's house.

(ii) What is Calphurnia dream? How did she interpret her dream? How does Decius interpret her dream?
Calpurnia dreamt that Caesar was killed by Romes. She interpreted the dream as a portent to the forthcoming probable danger to Caesar's life. Decius interprets her dream that Rome will revive because of Caesar's life. He says it in a positive way.


(iii) What other reasons did Calphurnia state for not wanting Caesar to go to the Senate?
She says that the night watchman had seen a lioness whelp in the street and graves opened setting the dead out of them. She fears all these and does not wants Caesar to go to the senate house.


(iv) What other statements did Decius make to convince Caesar that he should attend the Senate? How is it that Decius has come on the scene at the time?
Decius says that the senators night change their mind crowning Caesar as the king. He says that people will laugh at Caesar for being afraid. Decius come there on hid mission to bring Caesar to the senate house ol else he may not come as he become of late suppression.

(v) What is your opinion of Cesar at this point in the play? Express your feelings for him when he is assassinated.
Caesar has off-late become superstitious but he is consumed by his confidence. He is a man from between his love for his wife and his pride, I fell sympathetic for such a personality to be delivered by his intimate friend.


Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Decius
If you shall send them word you will not come,
Their minds may change. Besides, it were a mock
Apt to be render'd, for some one to say
“Break up the Senate till another time,
When Caesar's wife shall meet with better dreams".
If Caesar hide himself, shall they not whisper
“Lo, Caesar is afraid"?

Caesar

How foolish do your fears seem now, Calphurnia!
I am ashamed I did yield to them.
Give me my robe, for I will go.


(i) What had Decius assured Caesar that the Senate were proposing to do on that particular day?
Decius assured Caesar that the senate were proposing to crown Caesar as king on that day i.e., the ides of March.


(ii) When was a similar thing already offered and what was the reaction of Caesar at that time?
A similar offering was made by Antony at the feast of supercal three times but Caesar rejected the coronet offered by Antony.


(iii) What interpretation had Decius offered to Calphurnia's dream? What was his motive?
Decius interprets the dream in a positive way saying that Rome will revive from Caesar's life. He wanted to flatter Cesar by saying so and take him to the senate – house.

(iv) Earlier in the play, Cesar himself had expressed, once to Antony and once to
Calphurnia, other thoughts on the topic of fear. Describe as closely as you can any one of the things he says about fear.

While returning from the FOL, Caesar says to Antony that Casius is a person to be feared by others and not by Caesar because Cassius was a deep thinker who needs a persons mind and is jealus about his superiors. To calpurnia, Caesar say that e is wondering why people fear death which was an necessary end but he does not fear it so.

(v) Explain in your own words the meaning of the phrase “it were a mock/ Apt to be render'd. What is revealed of Decius' character in the passage.
If Caesar heeding to Calpurnia's warning does not come to the Senato house , there is a probability that it may be considered as a jolee and he may be laughed at by the people. It reveals Decius character as an unscrupulous.

Act II Scene 3 : Warnings and Fears

ASSIGNMENTS


1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Artemidorus

There is but one mind in all these men, and
It is bent against Caesar. If thou beest not immortal,
Look about you: security gives way to conspiracy.
The mighty gods defend thee! Thy lover, Artemidorus.


(i) At what occasion does Artemidorus say these words? Artemidorus is a symbolic individual. Whom does he symbolize in this scene?
Artemidours says these words on the Ides of March before Caesar goes to the capital. Artemidorous represents the honest common citizens of Rome who are on Caesars side.

(ii) “There is but one mind in all these men". What kind of a mind do the conspirators have? What is the difference in motives for conspiracy between Cassius and Brutus?
The conspirators are all hostile towards Cesar and they are bent upon killing Caesar. Cassius against Caesar as he is personally jealous of him while Brutus joins the conspiracy for the general good.

(iii) Why are all the conspirators against Caesar? How would the request ‘look about you' be significant at this time?
All the conspirators except Brutus have some personal grudge against Cesar. Caesar feels that around him there are his noble friends but they, are the ones whom Caesar has to be aware of.

(iv) What is meant by, “Security gives way to conspiracy"?

Caesar is illusioned that he is secure with all his noble friends around him but they are the real conspirators.

(vi) Besides Artemidorus, who else had warned Caesar about the danger to his life? What was the warning and how did Caesar react to the warning?
A soothsayer warned Caesar about the danger to his life. The soothsayer warned Caesar to beware of the ides of March but Caesar simply disregarded the warning.


Act II Scene 4: In the Streets – Warnings
ASSIGNMENTS


1 Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow :

Enter Portia and Lucius

Portia
I prithee, boy, run to the Senate House;
Stay not to answer me, but get thee gone.
Why dost thou stay?
Lucius
To know my errand, madam.


(i) Where does this scene take place? Give one example to show that Portia is agitated.
The scene takes place in the street before the house of Brutus. She does not give as errand to Lucius but scolds him when she finds that he still had not left the place.

(ii) What is the errand, on which Portia is sending Lucisu? What has motivated
her to send Lucius urgently on the errand?
Portia asks Lucius to go and se how Brutus is and what the suitors are pressing about Caesar. She knows that the conspiracies had Leaked out and she is concerned about Brutus.

(iii) Whom does she meet a little later, which increases her tension? What does that
person indicate that there is a possibility of an impending danger?
Portia meets a soothsayer. He says that he will stand on the streets and warn Caesar to befriend himself as he fears an impending danger to Caesars life.

(iv) Give two arguments put forward earlier to Brutus by Portia to indicate why she should know his secrets.
Portia says that with the bond of marriage that exists between them and that she does not live in the suburbs of his pleasure, she has aright to know his secrets. She feels that she is different from other woman who connot keep secrets while she can do so.

(v) What noise does Portia said to have heard a little later? Does Lucius hear the noise? What can you conclude about this situation?
Portia hears a confused murmur like a conflict coming from the capital lucius does not hear the noise. She is an agitated mood in which she imagines things that does not happer.



2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Portia
I would have had thee there, and here again,
Ere I can tell thee what thou shouldst do there.
O constancy, be strong upon my side;
Set a huge mountain ‘tween my heart and tongue!
I have a man's mind, but a woman's might.
How hard it is for women to keep counsel!
Art thou here yet?

Lucius
Madam, what should I do?

(i) Where is Portia sending Lucius? What does she tell Lucius to find out about Brutus and Caesar?
Portia is sending Lucius to the capital. She asks him to see how Brutus is and what suitors are pressing about Caesar.

(ii) Why is Portia externally distracted and internally anxious according to the extract?
Portia knows that the conspiracy has leaked out and is externally distracted because she finds it difficult to keep the news of conspiracy as a secret. She is internally anxious as she feels there may be harm Caused to Brutus due to the conspiracy.

(iii) Give the meaning of: “Set a huge mountain ‘tween my heart and tongue!" What is the conflict from which she suffers as indicated in this statement?
Put a barrier between the feelings of my heart and my tongue which would utter them. She finds it difficult of to keep the news of the conspiracy as a secret. This is the conflict from which she suffers.

(iv) State in your own words what Portia means by “a man's mind but a woman's ‘might." What does she feel is her weakness? Why?
She has a strong mind of a man who is determined but a woman's night that she cannot keep counsel. She feels she is so weak that she cannot keep the secret of the conspiracy which when leaked will cause harm to Brutus.

(v) In what way is a sense of urgency indicated in the first two lines of the extract? Where else, in the extract, does she show the same attitude?
Portia orders Lucius to go to the senate house and come back without assigning a job to him. When she finds Lucius still there scolds him for not doing his job.


3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Soothsayer
None that I know will be, much that I fear may chance.
Good morrow to you. Here the street is narrow.
The throng that follows Caesar at the heels,
Of senators, of praetors, common suitors,
Will crowd a feeble man almost to death:
I'll get me to a place more void, and there
Speak to great Caesar as he comes along.

(i) Omens and soothsayers play a big role in Julius Caesar. What role does the soothsayer play here? What effect does his presence have on Portia and on the audience?
Soothsayer is a warning to Caesar as well as a person who comments on the super natural and earthly happenings Portia is agitated whether he knew about the conspiracy or not while the audience think that the soothsayer would be able to break the news to Caesar or not. There is a suspense crated in this scene.

(vii) To whom does the soothsayer address these words? Explain the first sentence
in the extract in the light of what has already been said to him.
Soothsayer addresses these words to Portia. Portia wants to know whether the Soothsayer knew about any harm intended to Caesar.

(viii) What is meant by “the throng"? What would the throng witness in a short time?
The throng = the crowd. The throng would witness the assassination of Caesar in a short time.

(ix) What does the soothsayer want to tell Caesar? Why does he wish to get for
himself a “ place more void"?
The soothsayer wants to warn Caesar of the danger to his life. He wants a more void place as he is an old man who may be strampled to death by the throng.

(x) Besides the soothsayer, there is another person waiting to communicate on the road with Caesar. Who is he ? What does he want to tell Caesar?
Artemidorous is waiting to communicate on the road with Caesar. He wants to tell Caesar to be aware of his friends.

Act III Scene 1 : The Death of Caesar

E. ASSIGNMENTS

1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Caesar
(To the Soothsayer) The ides of March are come.
Soothsayer
Ay, Caesar; but not gone.
Artemidorus
Hail, Caesar! Read this schedule
Decius
Trebonius doth desire you to o'er-read,
At your best leisure, this his humble suit.


(i) Where does this conversation take place? Why did Caesar tell the Soothsayer:
“The Soothsayer had earlier warned Caesar of this day and now Caesar scornfully says that the ides of March have come yet he is free from danger. Caesar had met the soothsayer earlier on the F.O.L.

(ii) Who is Artemidorus? Whom does he represent in the play? What is the
importance of his schedule?
Artemidorous is a teacher of rhetoric. He represents the common people in the play. In his schedule, he warns Caesar of the conspiracy and asks him to be aware of his surroundings.

(iii) Why does Artemidorus request Caesar to read his schedule first?
Artemidorous requests Caesar to nead his schedule first as it concerned personally to Caesar.

(iv) Mention the two reasons given by Caesar for not reading the schedule handed over by Artemidours.
Caesar says that petitions that concerns him will be considered last and Artemidorous is presenting his petition is the street which is improper as he is to the senators to/ Caesar in the Capitol.

(v) Name two people in the scene who are trying to warm Caesar. Name two other
people who defeat their efforts to do so.
The Soothsayer and Artemidorous are trying to warn Caesar. Decius and Publius defeat their efforts to do so.

(vi) With reference to a previous scene, show how Artemidorus' fears are justified.
In Act I, Scene II, Artemidorous prepares as suit to warn Caesar of the conspiracy. His fears are justified because later in the play, Caesar is assassinated by the conspirators.

(xi) In what mood is Caesar at this point of the scene? Give an example to
substantiate your answer.
Caesar's wisdom is consumed with confidence. He remains adamant and rejects the repealing of publics camber inspire of the pleadings to made by Brutus and Ceassius.


2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Cassius
Casca, be sudden, for we fear prevention.
Brutus, what shall be done? If this be know,
Cassius or Caesar never shall turn back,
For I will say myself.
Brutus
Cassius, be constant.
Popilius Lena speaks not of our purposes;
For, look, he smiles, and Caesar doth not change.


(i) “If this be known"- What does “this" refer to? If it would be known what could happen?
This refers to their conspiracy. If it would be known, Cassius would kill himself.

(ii) What duty is assigned to Casca? Why should he be sudden?
Casca should be the first to raise the sword on Caesar. He should be sudden as they fear that the news of lonspiracy has leaked the people may prevetn on Caesasr's face has not changed.

(iii) What has Popilius Lena said and done which makes Cassius to fear? What did they think that Lena was saying? How does Brutus show them that there is nothing to fear?
Popilius Lena wished success to Cassius enterprise and went straight away to Caesar to speak to him. They thought they Lena was saying their conspiracy against Caesar Brutus shows so by saying that Len is smiling and talking to Caesar and the expression.

(iv) What was the task assigned to Trebonius?
Trebonius was assigned the task of taking mark Antony away from Caesar.

(v) What petition did Metellus Cimber present to Caesar? In what way did he flatter Caesar?
In his petitioin, Metellus asked for the repealing of his banished brother, publics limber. He flattered Caesar by addressing him as most high, most might and most puissant Caesar.

(vi) Give two of the arguments given by Caesar to reject the petition made by Metellus. Which trait of Caesar's character is highlighted in these arguments?
Firstly , he is as constant as the northern star and cannot be influenced by anyone secondly, Once publiks is banished from Rome according to the law, he would not alter the laws. Caesar is too rigid a person who sticks to the laws.


3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Caesar
But I am constant as the northern star,
Of whose true-fix'd and resting quality
There is no fellow in the firmament.
The skies are painted with unnumber'd sparks,
They are all fire and every one doth his place.
But there's but one in all doth hold his place.
So, in the world; ‘tis furnish'd well with men,

(i) What is the northern star? Give the meaning of :
Of whose true-fix'd and resting quality
There is no fellow in the firmament.
It is a star in the northern part of the sky which is constant it's position Caesar says that there is no equal fellow is the sky who has such permanent qualities as constancy.

(ii) Why does Caesar compare himself to the northern star? What is the occasion for such a comparison?
He compares so to show that he is constant in his decisions and connot be influenced easily. He says these words when Metellus asks for the repealing of his banished brother – publics comber.

(iii) State the comparison made by Caesar between the firmament and the world of men.
Caesar says that there many stars in the sky but only the poles star is constant in it's position similarly, there are many men in the world but only one man is as constant as the pole star who is unassailable i.e., Caesar himself.

(iv) Why is Caesar so stubbornness his attitude towards the conspirators? What purpose does his stubborness serve on the dramatic effectiveness?
Caesar is stubborn towards the conspirators as he feels that he is invinilbel. His stubbornness justifies the assassination of Caesar, which is done as they feared that the become an arrogant rules.

(v) What horrible event is about to take place in a short time? Who was the first to strike? Why is Antony absent from the scene? What could have happened if Antony were to be present to be present on the scene?
The assassinations of Caesar in about of take place in a short time. Casca was the first to strike. Trebonius had taken Antony on some business away from Caesar. Antony might have trued to resist the action of the conspirators and in the chaos might have been killed along with Caesar.


4 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Brutus
Fates, we will know your Pleasures.
That we shall die, we know : it's but the time
And drawing days out, that men stand upon.
Casca
Why he that cuts off twenty years of life
Cuts off so many years of fearing death.

(i) When does this conversation take place? In what state of mind are Brutus and Cassius?
This conversation takes place after the assassinations of Caesar. As they have not planned their action after the assassination, Brutus and cassius are in a confused state of mind.

(ii) What is meant by the Fates? State in your own words what the Facts were responsible for. According to the extract, what do men know and what do they fear?
Fates are the goddesses of destiny. The fates were responsible for the death Caesar men know for cretin that they should die but they do not when they will die. That is what they fear.

(iii) What positive note does Casca strike in the death of Caesar? What does Brutus
feel about it?
Casco says that they have helped Caesar by taking of twenty are friends of Caesar as they have shortened his time of fearing death.

(iv) After the extract, what does Brutus ask the Roman's to do? In what way does this seem to be a fulfillment of Calphurnia's dream?
Brutus asks the Romans to bathe their hands and swards with the blood of Caesar A similar thing happened in Clpurnia's dream and hence, her dream is fulfillment.

(v) State briefly the role played by the assassination of Caesar in the story-line of Julius Caesar.
The assasination of Caesar forms the claims of the play. In the story line of Julius Caesar , all the incidents till now have been centered on Julius Caesar as the protagonist. After the assasination of Caesar, the play shifts it's emphasis to Brutus and his tragedy.


5 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Cassius
Stoop then, and wash. How many ages hence
Shall this our lofty scene be acted over,
In states unborn and accents yet unknown.

Brutus
How many times shall Caesar bleed in sport,
That now on Pompey's basis lies along.
Now worthier than the dust.
Cassius
So oft as that shall be,
So often shall the gave their country liberty.
The men that gave their country liberty.
Decius
What, shall we forth?
Cassius
Ay, every man away.
Brutus Shall' lead, and we will grace his heels
With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.
(Enter a Servant)
Brutus
Soft, who comes here?

(i) When Cassius says “Stoop then, and wash", to whom is he speaking? What exactly does he mean? Who had just suggested washing?
Cassius says these words to the assisinators. He hands upto their elbow in order to turn their assasination into aritual. Brutus had suggested this washing.

(ii) What is Brutus wanting to express when he says “how many times shall Caesar bleed in sport?
Brutus considers cassasination of Caesar as a historical event which would be repeatley enacted on stage shaving that Brutus and his men were the heroes who liberated Rome of the tyranny.

(iii) Explain the meaning of ‘states unborn', accents' an ‘Pompey's basis'.
States unborn = states that are not hounded yet. Accents = languages. Pompey.

(iv) Briefly describe the ‘lofty scene'.
The lofty scene here is the assasination of Caesar, Cassius thinks that this noble scene will be enacted many times in the coming ages and people will call the conspirators as reformers purges. It was Casac who first stabbed Caesar and was followed by all the conspirators and last by Brutus. Then mighty Caesar falls saying et the Brutus then fall Caesar.

(v) The servant's entry may be said to mark the turning point of the whole play. Narrate, very briefly, in what way this is so.
The climax of the play takes place in this scene all the previous scene have led to the assasinatin of Caesar the entry of Antony's servant is the hinge of the play as he announces the counter stroke, the reaction against the main action of the play. Antony, kept deliberately is the background so has now, as the subtle and powerful champion of the dead Caesar.


6 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Antony
O mighty Caesasr! Dost thou lie so low?
Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils,
Shrunk to this little measure? Fare thee well.
I know not, gentlemen, what you intend,
Who else must be let blood, who else is rank:
If I myself, there is no hour so fit
As Caesasr's death's hour, nor no instrument
Of half that worth as those your swords, made rich
With the most noble blood of all this world.

(i) Where does the mighty Caesar lie? What is meant by “this little measure? Give one example each of Caesar's conquests and his glories.
Caesar is lying on the base of Ponpey's statue “ this little measure the small area on which Caesar's body lies. Caesar had expanded the berritory of Rome through his, conquest. The best example is the battle of nervil.


(ii) Who are the ‘gentlemen' he address? What does he implore them to do?
What does his request tell us about his character?
Antony address the asssasinators as gentleman; Antony implores them to kill with the same swords and same hands that killed mighty Caesar. It shout that Antony was a true lover of Caesar who was needy to end up his life.

(iii) Give the meaning of : “ Who else must be let blood, who else is rank,
What, in your opinion , is Antony's reason for saying so?
Who else must killed as per your intentions you think have grown too powerful. Antony wants to point out the savegery of the conspirators for political benefit.

(v) What does Antony's expression, ‘the most noble blood of all this world' indicate about Antony's feeling for Caesar?
Antony to has great respect for Caesar who considers Caesar as the noblest of all men in the world.

(vi) What did Brutus tell Antony about the conspirator's feeling for Caesar? Was Brutus honest? Why?
Brutus tells Antony that their action may appear bloody but it was motivated lay the great injustice alone to the Roman Republic Brutus was honest to his words as he joined the conspiraey completely out of his love for Rome.



7 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Antony
My credit now stands on such slippery ground,
That one of two bad ways you must conceit me,
Either a coward or a flatterer.
That I did love thee, Caesar, O ‘tis true:


(i) When and to whom does Antony speak these words?
Antony speaks these words to the assasinators. He speaks these words after making compromise with them.


(ii) What is meant by the word ‘credit'? Why does it now stand on such slippery ground?
Credit recitation, It stands on slippers grounds because he had made a compromise with the assasinators.

(iii) What does Antony mean to say by the following words?
That one of two bad ways you must conceit me, Either a coward or a flatterer.
Antony says that by making a compromise with the assasinators, they can think of Antony is turo bad ways i.e. either a flatterer a loward who compromise with his crimes.


(iv) What effect do Antony's action and words have on his listeners?
Antony's action and words change the minds o the conspirators to make a compromise with him.

(v) What mistake did Brutus make by granting the request of Antony? What did Cassius warn him then? What was the consequence of the mistake?
By granting permission to Antony to speak at Caesar's funeral, Brutus himself have passed the path for Romans mutiny against the conspirator's. Cassius warded Brutus not to allow Antony to do so as he felt Antony's speech may change the finds of the people consequently Brutus & the conspirators fled from Rome & Antony waged a war against them and destroyed all of them.

(vi) How did Antony prove that he could be both a coward and a flatterer?
Antony proves himself as a coward by making a compromise with the assasinators as “gentleman all" Actually, Antony is neither a flatterer nor a coward but he does so as a part of his sanity to avenge the death of Caesar.



8 Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow:
Antony
Pardon me, Julius! Here wast thoud bay'd brave hart;
Here did'st thou fall; and here thy hunters stand,
Sign'd in thy spoil, and crimson'd in thy lethe.
O world, thou wast the forest to this hart;
And this indeed, O world, the heart of thee.
How like a deer, strucken by many princes,
Dost thou here lie!

(i) Who speaks these words? “Here wast thou bay'd." What is the comparison implied in the expression? To what custom of the hunters does it refer?
Antony speaks these words the comparison is made to Caesar, the heart of Rome and ‘hart a stage. A stag is brought to day when it has been hunted to a halt and forced to face the hounds. Similarly the conspirators have put Caesar in a defenseless position and killed him. The custom putting an animal at bay before killing it.

(ii) Explain the double meaning intended the expression, ‘brave hart'.
It is a pun of on hart and heart. The world was the forest in which Caesar roamed as freely s a stag. He was so great that was the heart of the world.

(iii) Who are the hunters in the present crisis? Give the meaning of: “Sign'd in thy spoil, and crimson'd in thy lethe.
The assasinators are the hunters at present Antony says that the assasinators have marked Caesar with his own blood and now Caesar ha forgotten all his earthly possessions.

(iv) In what was the world, “the forest to this hart" and ‘this', “O world, the heart of thee"?
The world was a forest in which Caesar roamed as freely as a stag. He was so great that he was the heart of the world.

(v) Why does Antony arouse Cassius' suspicion? What does Cassius ask Antony as a result of the suspicion?

Cassius suspects Antony when he glorifies Caesar in his words over the dead body of Caesar Cassius, full of suspicion asks Antony his purpose of compromising with the assasirators



9 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Antony
And Caesar's spirit, ranging for revenge,
With Ate by his side come hot form hell,
Shall in these confines with a monarch's voice
Cry ‘Havoc!' and let dogs of war,
That this foul deed shall smell above the earth
With carrion men, groaning for burial.

(i) Why is Caesar's spirit ‘raging for revenge'? When and to whom does Caesar's spirit appear later in the play?
Caesar's spirit will rage for revenge as he was killed in a devilling manner. Caesar's spirit will later appear in the play to Brutus at sardis and later again at phillipi.

(ii) Who is Ate? Why is he name used in the context? What is meant by, “confines"?
Ate is the greek goddess of mischief and revenge Antony says that Caesar along with Ate would come and avenge his death confines = regions.

(iii) With a monarch's voice ‘Cry Havoc! – This indicates absolute and authoritative royal command for destruction. What does the expression foretell about the things to come?
This expression foretells the civil strife was to occur in Rome which would cause complete destruction

(iv) Who are ‘the dogs of war'? Which foul deed is referred to and how will it ‘smell above the earth?
War is described as a destructive hunter with fierce dogs. The assasination of Caesar is referred to as the foul deed.

(v) What would the consequences of these happenings be for the conspirators and as well as for Antony?
The conspirators would be driven out of Rome and eventually their life could end as a tragedy while Antony's position is the Roman politics would rise.




10. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Antony
Yet stay awhile;
Thou shalt not back till I have borne the corpse
Into the market place: there shall I try,
In my oration, how the people take
The cruel issue of these bloody men.


(i) To whom is Antony speakign? Why is this person here? Where are they?
Antony is speaking to a servant of octavius. Octavius had sent him to inform Antony of his arrival. They are before the capital.

(ii) What had Antony just said to this person before telling him to “stay awhile"? How did this person help Antony?
Antony had asked him to return to Octavius and stop him from coming to Rome as this had become a dangerous place for Octavius. This person helped Antony by carrying Caesar's lorpse to the market place.


(iii) Explain the meaning of “oration". What does the passage reveal to us about
what Antony proposed to do?
‘Oration' means a public speech. Antony is proposing to influence the Romans and make them rebel against the assasinators and also he is planning for his own rise in the Roam politics.

(iv) Earlier, Antony said, “ Over thy wounds now do I prophesy." Mention any three points of his prophesy.
There will be a severe civil strike in Rome.
Blood and destruction shall become a routine in one's life
Caesar's spirit along with ate shall cause utter destruction to Rome.


(i) What trait of Antony's nature is shown in this passage? Give examples of two other occasions in the play where a different aspect of his character is shown distinct form the one shown in this extract .
Antony is pictured as a cunning planner. Antony's great lone for Caesar is shown in his solioguy after Caesar's death and his courage is shown when he asks assasinators to kill him in he was the next person to be killed who has grown too powerful.


Act III Scene 2: The Funeral of Caesar

ASSIGNMENTS


1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Brutus
Be patient till the last.
Romans, countrymen, and lovers! hear me for my
cause; and be silent, that you may hear. Believe me
for mine honour, and have respect to mine honour,
that you may believe. Censure me in your wisdom,
and awake your senses, that you may the better judge.

(i) Where is Brutus? Whom does he request to be patient? On what occasion is
this speach made?
Brutus is in a pulpil at forum. He requests the angry mob of Romans to be patient. This specah is made in order to give their reasons for assosinating Caesar.

(ii) How important was honour for Brutus? Give one example to justify your ansser. In what way did his commintment to honour lead him to the present crisis?
Brutus honoured ' honour' rather than his life. Even while appealing to the crowd, he asks them to believe him for his honour which was very famous is Rome. His commitment to honour lead him to the present crisis as he joined the conspiraly ogainst Caesar for 'honour; and his patriotism to Rome.

(iii) "Hear me for my cause" What was his cause? Were his motives genuine? How can you justify your answer?
Brutus cause was his ideal i.e., to free Reome from tyranny. His motives were geniune as only Brutus had joined the lonspivacy against Caesar with a noble cause, while the nest had joined for their personal named towards Caesar.

(iv) What was the reaction of his listeners in the beginning as well as at the end of the scene? How did the change in their attitude come about?
In the beginning, the mob were on 'Brutus side while at the end they were on Antiny's side. This attitude was changed due to Antony's speech shich appeared thier hearts and also their gned.

(v) Give the meaning of : "Censure me in your wisdom." Who passed censure on him? In what way has this changed the course of action in the play?
Brutus asks the mob to criticise and judge him according to their wisdom Mark Antony in his planned passionat e speech and his men for causa's assosination Censures him.






2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follwo :
Bruts
Good countrymen, let me depart alone,
And, for my sake, stay here with Antony.
Do grace to Caesar's corpse, and grace his speech
Tending to Caesar's glories, which Mark Antony,

i.e as per their right and wrong with regard to the assasination of Caesar later, / Antony rips apart all the Justification put forward by Brutus. This makes the commoners turn voile and back Antony strongly. From his point onwards

By our permission, is allow'd to make.
I do entreat you, not a man depart,
Save I alone, till antony have spoke.

(i) Why does Brutus intend to depart alone? Why are the listeners left behind?
Brutus istends to depart, alone as he wanted the mod to listen to Antony's speech. The mod were left behind to hear the funeral oration made by Antony.

(ii) What explanatin had Brutus given in hi speech for the murder of Caesar? What was the reaction of hi listeners?
Brutus says that caesar was ambination and would make a slave of every Roman it made the king. The listeners called Caesar a tyrant and acclained Brutus.

(iii) What explanation had Brutus given in his speech for the murder of Caesar? What was the reaction of his listeners?
Brutus says that Caesar was ambition and would make a slave of every Roman is made the King. The listeners called Caesar a tyrant and acclained Brutus.

(iv) who has given Antony permission to speak? Given any two conditions under which Antony is allowed to speak.
Brutus has given Antony permission to speak. Antony should not blame the assasinatin, He should speak only good to caesar ad should say that he is speaking withe the permission of the mirderss.

(v) State which of Caesar's glories would Antony refer to in his speech a little later. What does he want ot achieve by his speech?
Antony says that Caesar had brought many captives to Rome who paid huge rasnsons. When the poor caried, caesar wept for them. Antony wasnted to win over the mob and stir the mob ot rebel against teh conspiratation.


3 Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow.
Antony
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
The evil that men do lives after them,
The good is oft interred with their bones;
So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you Caesar was ambitious;
If it were so, it was a grievous fault,
And grievously hatt Caesar answer'd it.

(i) As Antony ascends the platfrom to speak, what did the citizens fee and say
about Caesar, Brutus and Antony?
As Antony ascends the platform to speak, what did the citizens feel and say about Caesar is a tyrant, Brutus as a purger who have freed Rome and they are suspicious of what Antony was to say.

(ii) Whyd did the citizens stay behind to listen to Antony? In what may does Antony repel their suspicion in the beginning of his speech?
The citizens stayed behind as Brutus bid them to do so to listen to Antony's funeral oration of caesar Antony repels the suspicion of the bod by adressing them as friends and saying that he is greatful to the mod for Brutus sake.

(ii) Give the meaning of: The good is oft interred with their bones.
The good deels done by men are often buried in the earth with their bodies.

(iv) Which evil, which Caesar is said to have done, lives after him? Give two examples of the good done by Caesar.
The evil of despotism lives after Caesar. Caesar brought home to Rome many Captives who paid huge ransons and tha money caesar utilised for the general citizens. when the poor cried out, is their misery, caesar had wept for them .

(v) Why does Antony say "the noble Brutus"? Why does he use the expression "If it were so"? Why couldn't he be frank in his remarks?
Antony ironically adrsses Brutus as noble Brutus to expose the emptiress of Brutus action. he is indirectly influencing the nob who are now on the assasinator's side by indirectly implying that Caesar was not ambitious. If Antony was frank is his remarks, he would not be able to win over the nob and also will be putting his life is danger.

(vi) Why do you admire Antony at this juncture? State briefly how he dealt with the crisis, he found himself in.
I admire Antony as he is standing by his friend though he is deal now and is trying to anerge the death of his beloved friend. He is fulences the mob by skilfully playing on their emotions and greed and eventually frees himself out of the present crisis he is in.



4 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow.
Antony
Let but the commons hear this testament-
Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read-
And they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds,
And dip their napkins in his sacred blood,
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,
And, dying, mention it within their wills,
Bequeathing it as a rich legacy
Unto their issue.

(i) What is the testament and who are referred to as "the commons"?
The testament is Caesar's will the citizens of Rome are referred to as " the commons".

(ii) Give the meaning of: "Bequeathing it as a rich legacy/ Unto their issue."
The relics of Caesar will be left as a priceless inheritance to their sons.

(iii) Antony uses hyperbolic (exaggerated) expressions in the extract. What effect
would such a language have on the commons?
By using such expressions, Antony can influence the mob more easily.

(iv) Mention two of the purposes why the commons would dip their napkins in Caesar's blood and beg a hair of his. Why is the blood of Caesar said to be sacred? (Refer to the speech of Brutus earlier, in which he indicates how caesar should be murdered.)
In Caesar's memory To beququeath it to their successors as a rich legacy. The blood of Caesar is said to be sacred as he was a man who revived Rome through his lfie.

(v) Besides the testament, which other item does Antony show later to the commons? How does that incite the commons?
Antony later shows the wounds inflicted upon Caesar's body the assasinators. The commons are moved at this sight and are immediatley stimed to mebelion against the assasintors.

(vi) Stae briefly how Antony cleverly played on the emotions of the common people and show how they reacted as he desired.
Antony begins the oration by adressing the commoner's as friends. He flatters them, but he is prepared to be angry with thin, to shame them by weeping once the cropse. he knew that this crouwd is emotional and says that ambition should be made of sterner stuff against the assosinators for the injurice done him.



5 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Antony
I tell you that which you yourselves do know,
Show you sweet Caesar's wounds, poor poor dumb mouths,
And bid them speak for me. But were I Brutus,
And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony
Would ruffle up your spirits, and put a tongue
In every wound of Caesar, that should move
The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny.

(i) Why are the wounds referred to as "poor dumb mouths"? If Brutus were
Antony, what would have happened in every wound of Caesar?
They are referred so as they are not able to speak out their griet. if Brutus were Antony, he would have made every would of Caesar to speak up and revolt referring to Caesar's refual to take the crown at the FOL. The people are then completley on Antony's side and they drove the assisnators awa from Rome.

(ii) What does Antony idirectly say to indicate that there should be a mutiny? Bring out the irony in his words in the extract.
Antony ironically says that is Brutus were Antony he would have stirred the souls of Romans and would make even the stones of the road to rise up in refellion.

(iii) Throughout his speech, Antony repeats that the conspirators were honourable. Why does he do that if he does not mean it?

Antony actullay does not mean to say the assasinators were honourable but Brutus had asked Antony not to blame them, so Antony repeatedly adresses the assasinators as honourable men which later is the speech sounds follow.

(iv) At the end, how does the mob leave the scene? What do they plan to do? What does Antony, being satisfied, say after the departure of the mob?
The mob leave the sceve in as agitated mood without thinking what they are to do to anerge caesar's death. They plan to destroy the conspirators, Antony says " Mischief, thou art a foot, take thou what course with thou.

(v) Where does Antony go at the end of the scene? Whom does he join there? What happens to Brutus and Cassius?
Antony goes to Caesar's house at the end of the sceve and joins octavius and sepidus there. Brutus and cassius hae fled from Rome as they knew the consequence of Antony;s speech.

(iv) Mention, with examples, any three of the tactics used by Antony to make the common people slaves of passion and resentment.
Firstly, Antony frequently uses the word honourable to make it sound follow. secondly, by referring to the tega hwom by Caesar, he indirectly recalls the military acomplishment of Caesar. Thirdly, Antony plays upon the greed of the mob by showing them the wice.




Act III Scene 3 : Mob Violence

ASSIGNMENTS

1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Cinna

I dreamt tonight that I did feast with Caesar,
And things unluckily charge my fantasy.
I have no will to wander forth of doors,
Yet something leads me forth.

(i) Who was Cinna? Why did he wander forth? What did he dream that night?
Cinna was a poet. He went out of doors although he did not wanted to as something impelled him to go out. He dreamt last night that he had fested with Caesar.

(ii) What is meant by : things unluckliy charge my fantasy"? What do you find irnical in this statement of Cinna?
Bad opens name filled my dream. This statement made by cinna is ironical beacuse though not wants to go out, something compeled him to go and eventually gets musdered by the angry mob.

(iii) Why had cinna no will to go about? What does the extract show about the superstitious attitude of the Elizabethan age?
Cinna had no will to go about as he dreant last night tha someone had musdered Caesar. Though it is a Roman play, shakespeare makes use of the superstition attitude of the Elizabethans who considered onens.

(iv) What type of question did the mob ask him? What did he tell them?
The mob asked Cinna to tell his name, his residense, was he a bachelor or not, was he enemy of Caesar and where was he going. Cinna answer that his name was linna, he lived by the Captial, he was his name was linna, he lived by the captial, he was a bachelor and he was a friend of caesar who was going to attend the funeral of Caesar.

(v) How far has Shakespeare portrayed a frenzied mob in this scene?
Shakespeare portrayed the mob as group of shakespeare portrayed teh nob as a group of fickle minded people who are easily swayed by blind emotions. The mob does not have reasoning power and are hall-best to destroy the conspirators.


(i) Who asks Cinna so many questions? What has just happened that makes them confused and irrational?
The mob asks Cinna so many questions. By listening to the different orations made by Brutus and Antony, the mob are not in a position to justify what is correct between those two. Hence they are in a confused state

(ii) When Cinna says he is a bachelor, the second citizen concludes: "They are fools that marry". Why is this conclusion not logical?
The conclusion is not logical as these words are uttered by the citizen out of his anger which makes him speak illogical things.

(ii) What pun is intended by the word 'directly' in the extract?

The word can mean two different things. Firstly directly according to the mob is plainly. Secondly, directly according to cinna is immediately.

(iv) Why was it unfrotunate for the man to have Cinna as his name? How did the citizens deal with him?
It is unfortunate for the man to have Cinna as hs name as it cost his like one of th econspirators was also named Cinna. The citizens beat him black and blue and probably killed him.

(v) What does this scene tell us abut the events to follow?
This scene fortells that Antony porphecy is going to become true.

(vi) What is the significance of this short scene in the play? What purpose does it serve, dramatically?
The scene signifies the irony the wanted to establish a repblican state but in reality, they dramaticaly, this scene curches away from the brutaual assasination of caesar to the comic killing of cinner, the poet.

Act. IV Scene 1 : The Triumvirate Formed

(i) What is meant by "their names are prick'? Why are these names prick'd what does this show regarding th custom of Elizabethan times?
Their name are noted down. These names are noted down for execution. It is a reference to the elizabethan custom of preparing a proscription to sentence the traitors to death.

(ii) What was Antony's reply to the condition put forward by Lepidus? What does Antony ask Lepidus to do then? Why?
Antony consensts to the condition put forward by depidus. Antony then, asks depidus to fetch thewill from Caesar's house so that they can cut off some money bequeathed by caesar to the citizens.

(iii) What opinion does Antony hold to Lepidus?
Antony describes Lepidus as "a slight unneritable man" and a barren- spirited fellow", fit only to be their instrument for gaining full power.

(iv) Antony has an action-plan for Lepidus, what does he propose to do with him
after making use of him?
Antony proposes to use Lepidus to do their mean work and that later he will force him into unrewarded retirement.

(v) What does Octavius say about Lepidus is a good soldire, who is very much experienced.
(i) Where are the three persons? What have they formed? who "shall not live"?

The three person are is a room is Antony house. They have formed the second triumvivate of Rome. Antony's nephew shall not live.

(ii) Om a previous occasion, Antony has referred to Caesar's will, when talking to the Roman citisens. Show the contrast between that rference and this.

Previously, Antony referes to will for the benefit of the commones but at present, he refers to the will for his personal benefit.

(iii) Explain the meanings of 'determine' and 'charge'. What trait of Antony's character is shown in lines 3 and 4?

Determine- decide: charge-expenditure-. Anton's unscrupulous nature is shown in the lines three and four.

(iv) State any two of the three things that Antony says about Lepidus after his departure.
Antony says that Lepidus is an unmeritable man who is not fit to be their equal and he, is a dull spirited fellow who can be used only for sending on errands.
Act IV Scene 2: The Begining of the Quarrel


(i) Who is Pindarus? Name his master. What message does he coney to Brutus?
Pindarus is a servant ot cassisu. Pindarus hand to Brutus a letter from Cassius and inform him that Cassius will come the soon.


(ii) Render the following lines in your own words.
"In his own change, or by ill officers, Hath given me some worthy casuse to wish Things done, undone."

Due to some change in himself or by bad officers, has given me a good reason to wish that the things that happened had not happened.

(iii) Given two reasons to explain why the master of Pindarus did some things or did not do other things?
Cassis who is the treasfer of Pindarus leave taken and given officals posts to unworthy Sardens. The bribes were taken to fund their prepration.

(iv) What does Pindarus say about his master to Brutus after the extract? How did the master receive Luciilius?
Pinmdarus says that Cassius will be these soon for he is courteous and honourable. Cassius recieved Lucilius with sufficient courtesy and respect, but not with such familarity as he used to before.

(v) Where does this scene take place? Why are Brutus and Cassuis here?
This scene take place at sardis infront of Brutus tent Burtus and cassius are here as they have filed from Rome and are now planning to wage a war against the second triumvivates to regiain their position in Rome.

(i) Who has just described whom? What happens? What is menat by. " A hot friend cooling"?
Lucilious has just described cassius A passionate friend becoming / getting distracted.

(ii) When love begins to decline, what happens? What is said in the extrac about sincere friendship?
When love begins to decline, it uses an enforced cemony sincere friendship is without tricks and is honest.

(iii)Explain how men who are insincere in their friendship may be compared to a kind of horse.
Men who are insincere in their friendship are like horses when at the masters side make a great show and promise of their high quality. But when made to feel the spur on action their heads fal and like deceptive and worn out horses, they fail when put to the test.

(iv) whom is Brutus referring to as an insincere friend? what has happened to their relationship now? Why?
Brutus is referring to cassius as an insincere friend, At present, their relationship is a fit bittered because of same misunderstandings between then.

(v) Compare the relationship between Brutus and Cassisus to that between Antony and Octavius.
Brutus and cassius are not only friends but also brother-in-law whereas Antony and Octavius for their personal benefit are standing together.




(i) Whhich sober form of Brutus is referred to by Cassisus? What are the wrongs? How does the sober form hide wrongs?

The serious form of Butus by welcoming Cassius formally is referred to here.

(ii) What precautions does Brutus suggest to take in the situation in which Brtus and cassius are?
Brutus requests Cassius to come upto the



(iii) which two armies are referred to? Why should they perceive nothing but love?
The armines of Brutus and Cassius are referred to. It the armies come to know that there to a right between their leaders their morale will deteriorate.


(iv) After this extract Cassius and Brutus give instruction to Pindarus and Lucisus. What instruction does each of them give.?

Cassius instruct Pindarus to tell the officers to lead off their mear a little far from the tent. Brutus asks Lucius to do the same and also not to let any man enter his tent till their discussoin completed.

(vi) How does this scene indicate the lack of unity among the cospirators?

This scene often referred to as the Quarel scene, exposed the lack of unify among the conspirators. Brutus and Cassius are of logger fe



Act IV Scene3: The Quarrel and the Ghost

Where are Brutus and Cassius at this time? Relate briefly what charge Brutus lays against Cassius.
Brutus and Cassius are inside Brutus tent Brutus accuses Cassius of takin tirbes and selling officers for gold to unevitable people.

(ii) What had Cassius just complained of, to make Brutus say "You wronged yourself"? Explained the meaning of Brutus' words.
Cassius complains that Brutus has punished Lucius Pella for accepting tribes. Brutus say that Cassius has wronged himself by supporting Lucius pella who was corrupt.

(iii) What advice is Cassius giving Brutus in line 2 and 3? Do you think that Cassius was being practical?

Cassius was advising Brutus that during a military crisis, it was not wrong to accept tribes isorder survine and pay their legions. Yes, cassius was being practical at this point.
(iv) what did Brutus accuse Cassius of when he said "Let me tell you yourself. "? How did Cassius react to this?

Cassius is very much angered by Brutus accesation and threatened to kill him if he was not his old friend.

(v) In the argument which continues between these two, Brutus accuses Cassius of other faults. Point out two of these faults, and say how Cassius reacted to these accasations. Do you think Brutus was being fair to Cassius?

Firstly, Brutus accuse cassius of selling offices for unmeritable people who did the hightest price and says that cassius has an itcing palm. Cassius is angry and says it it were not Brutus. Who told this, would have been killed. Secondly, Brutus accuse that he had not kept the word of friendship by refusing him certain sums of Gold, cassius flatly denies refusal and says that the messenger had minister pretend the message.


(i) What sort of corruptin is referred to in the extract? What has been the reaction of Cassius, just before this extract, to this accusation?
The corrupt action of tibery is referred to in the extract. Cassius was very much angered and threatened to kill. Brutus if he were not his old friend.

(ii) What does the ides of March signify to them? For which purpose did Brutus say that Julius bled 'for justice sake?
Ides of March was the day when they transformed into purges of Rome by sacriicing caesar Brutus said so as they had killed Caesar when he sheltered ----- and was ambitious.

(iii) State briefly how the disagreement between Cassius and Brutus was resolved.
Though Cassius and Brutus are very affectionate towards each other, they exchange not words in this scene as they both are ill -tempered. Cassius offeres his heart to be killed by Brutus who then apologises to Cassius for his behaviour and then they both are recog at the end of the scene.

(iv) Given two examples from this scene to indicate that Brutus was really angry with Cassius.

Brutus says that Cassius has as itcing palm and also says that Cassius will swallow the posion of his word untill he gets, filled with it burst open.


(i) Given the meaning of: "You shall digest the venom of your spleen Thoug it do split you. "What does Brutus say he will use Cassius for?
Brutus says that Cassius will swallow the poison of his anger even it he burst with it Cassius will suffer for his anger. Brutus says that he will use Cassius for his amusement when he is ill tempered.

(ii) Given two examples of the taunts which Brutus had indulged in earlier which makes Cassius say "Is it come to this?
brutus says that Cassius has an itching palm, and also asks Cassius to go and vent his splee an his bond man who will trembel at that but not on Brutus.


(iii) Under what conditions had Cassius made the statement that he was a better soldier than Brutus? How accurate is Cassius' assessment of himself as a soldier? Given reasons for your answer.
Cassius says so when Brutus accusses time of raising money bu vile means. Cassius is accuarte to his point Being a soldier, he has a survival instinct. In order to survive and pay his men, he collects tiibes and sells offices without bothering for moral issues.

(iv) What is meant by 'vaunting? How could Cassius prove his vaunting at this point of time?
Vaunting - toasting Cassius proves himself as an able soldier then Brutus challenging him (Brutus)

(v) While Brutus and Cassius are arguing, a strange visitor enters the scene. Who is he? What is the purpose of his visit? How does Brutus react to his arrival?

The strange visitor is a poet he has come to bring back the lost unity between the General Brutus contemprously regards him as a tigging fool.



i) In what state is Cassius? Why is his heard richer than gold?
Cassius is desperate at Brutus words. Cassius heart is richer than gold as it contain love for Brutus it.

(ii) Who is Pluto? Why is Cassius' heart compared to Pluto's mine?
Pluto is the god of the underworld Pluto's mind is rich in mineral wealth is Cassius heart filled with love for Brutus is riches than Pluto mine.

(iii) When did Cassisu dney gold to Bruuts? Why did the latter need the gold? What explanation did cassius give for not giving the gold?

When Brutus needed money to pay his legions he sent a message to cassius asking for gold. But the message was misinterpreted by the messenger and hence cassius that he never denied any gold to Brutus.

(i) What reply does Brutus give to Cassius after this extract?
Brutus asks Cassius to sheathe his dagger and paccities hm by telling that Cassius words of rebuke will be considered as words of humour by him.

(v) what is the dramatic importance of this dialogue? In what ways does it influence the subsequent course of acton in the play?
This dialouge signifies the detachment between Brutus and Cassius Due to the gulf in between them, Brutus and cassius lose the battlle later in the play.


Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Cassius
Portia, art thou gone?
Brutus
No more, I pray you,
Messala, I have here received letters,
That young Octavius and Mark Antony
Come down upon us with a mighty power,
Bending their expedition towards Philippi.

Messala
Myself have letters of the self-same tenor.

(i) Where has Portia gone? Why is Brutus so abrupt as to wave aside the thought of Portia? What does it show us of his nature?

Portia is dead firstly, Brutus is a sfoic who considers grief and happiness in a same maners. Brutus does not want to show his personal sorrow infront of other men and he wants to concentrate more in his present wone.

(ii) Who is Messala? What is the 'self-same tenor' of which Messala speaks?
Messala is a friend of Brutus and Cassius Messala home recieved by Brutus. In his letters, the newly fromed.

(iii) What othe news does Messala give just after this extract?
Messala is from Brutus of portia's death ofter this extract.

(iv) What does Brutus come to know (from the letters he eceived) about Octavius and Antony? Where does Brutus plan to meet the enemy?
Brutus came to know that Antony and octavius are planning to March along phillipi and meet them at sardis. But Brutus plans to meet the enemy at phillipi.

(v) How strong had Octavius and Antony made themselves? What was the fate of Cicero?

Antony and octvius have made themselves strong by joining their armies. Cicero was executed to under the proscriptivs.



6 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Brutus
You must note beside,
That we have tried the utmost of our friends,
Our legions are brim-full, our cause is ripe.
The enemy increaseth every day;
We, at the height, are ready to decline.
There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life.
Is bound in shallowa and in miseries.

(i) To whom is Brutus giving the arguments in the extract? What is meant by, "Our legions are brim-full, our cause is ripe"?

Brutus is giving these arguments to cassius. Brutus tells Cassius that their armies are large enough and the time for fighting for their Cause is connect.

(ii) Give two arguments of Brutus to indicate that his military strength is in an advantageous position.
Brutus argues that their military strength is at peak and can only decline further. He also says that oppurnities come in life only at times and they should make best use of it.

(iii) Brutus says, "The enemy increaseth every day." State how it increases every day.

When Antony and his troops pass through sardis and reach phillipi, they can recruit their army by taking soldiers among the sardains as the surdians were displeased with Brutus & Cassius.

(iv) There is a tide in the affairs of men. _ What comparison is made between the voyage of life and the voyage on sea?

The imagery of the high and low tide is used to indicate oppurtunities that come to us. If we do not take advantage of them at their best, we lose.

(v) According to Brutus, "On such a full sea are we now afloat." How is this staement valid?

Brutus says that they are at the Lenith of their strength and can now only decline. This statement is valid as they have utilised the most they can from their allies as well as the sardians. Now ther is nothing for them to do.


7 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Brutus
How ill this taper burns! Ha! who comes here?
I think it is the weakness of mine eyes
That shapes this monstrous apparition.
It comes upon me. Art thou any thing?
Art thou some god, some angel, or some devil,
That mak'st my blood clod and my hair to stare?
Speak to me what thou art.

(i) To whom does Brutus speak in the extract? What is the setting of the scene during this time?

Brutus speaks of the spirit of Caesar is the extract. It is a right in sardis. Brutus is in his tent and there appears a cloudy appearnce of the spirit of Caesar which seemed non of trous.

(ii) What is the apparition referred to in the extract? Why is it said to be monstrous?
Caesar's spirit is the apparition reffered to in the extract. It is said to be monstous as the ghost had a cloudy appearence and these was a cruel look on it's face.

(iii) What does Brutus wonder about the apparition? What is the effect of the apparition on Brutus?

Brutus wonders whether it was a god or angel or some devil. This apparition had made Brutus blood cold and his hair to stand upright.

(iv) What does the apparition say to Brutus? What is the significance of what the apparition says to Brutus?

The apparition tells Brutus that he will see it again at philippi. It signifies the end of Brutus at phillppi which is the battle field.

(v) Who else was present at the scene? Did they see the apparition? State whether the apparition was the product of Brutus' imagination Give a reason to justify your answer.

Lucius, Varro and Claudius were present at the scene. They did not see, the apparition. It can be a byproduct of Brutus imagination as he is filled with guift after assasinating Caesar.


Act V Scene 1 : Confrontation
ASSIGNMENTS


1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Octavius

They mean to warn us at Philippi here,
Answering before we do demand of them.
Antony
Tut! I am in their bosoms, and I know
Wherefore the do it; they could be content
To visit other places, and come down
With fearful bravery, thinking by this face
To fasten in our thoughts that they have courage;
But 'tis not so.


(i) Who are they referred to in line 1 ? What warning would they give? From where would they come to Philippi?
'They' referred to in line 1 are Brutus and Cassius. They would give a warning of battle. They would come from sardis to Philippi.

(ii) Give the meaning of :
(a) Answering before we do demand of them.
(b) I am in their bosoms.
(a) Answering the challenge before we have made it
(b) I know fully what is in their hearts.

(iii) Whose military strategy has dictated that the battle should take place at Philippi? What had Brutus argued regarding this strategy?
Brutus military strategy had dictated the venue of the battle cassius says that they would better wait for the enemy to advance instead of themselves going Philippi as they would fine all their soldiers with the journey in the hearts of the enemies.

(iv) What opposition did Brutus meet against this strategy?


(v) What did Octavius hope that the enemy would do? What according to him is the intention of the enemy?

Octavius hoped the enemy would warn them at philippi. According to Ocavius, the enemy intends to challenge them before they have put up one.

(vi) What, according to Antony, is the planning of the enemy? Why does Antony feel so confident that he knows what the enemy intends to show?

According to Antony, the enemy plans to come down to Philippi and challenge them in order to show off their courage. Antony feels so as he knew the crofty trains of cassius and also what was in the hearts of the enemies.

(vii) What message is brought to Octavius and Antony by the messenger? How do these two leaders react to that message?
The messenge trought the news that Brutus and Cassius are advancing towards them with their army. Antony gives in structions for the battle but Octavius quarrels with Antony and deos nto agree to kee to the left.


2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :

Cassius
Now, Brutus, thank yourself:
This tongue had not offended so to-day
If Cassius might have rul'd

Octavius
Come, come, the cause. If arguing make us sweat,
The proof of it will turn to redden drops.
Look,
I draw a sword against conspirators;
When think you that the sword goes up again?
Never till Caesar's three and thirty wounds
Be well aveng'd or till another Caesar
Have added slaughter to the sword of traitors.

(i) Whose is the 'tongue' of which Cassius speaks? Give the substances of what the tongue had said which so'offended' Cassius.

Cassius speaks her of Antony's gongue. Antony calls Brutus and Cassius as villains and traitors who faltered Caesar and killed him. This made Cassius say.

(ii) Give a brief explanation of the earlier episode that Cassius is referring to when he reminds Brutus that he has only himself to thank for the present situation.

When the conspirators discussed about the assasintion of Caesar, Cassius said that Mark. Antony would also be killed but Brutus objected toit. Now Cassius says that Antony would not have oftended them at the present situation is Brutus had lishened to him.

(iii) Givt the comments made by Cassius, in his next speech, when he scornfully describes Octavius.

Cassius scornfully describes Octavius as a peevish h school boy who is not worthy of such honour and he has how allied with a reveller.

(iv) What does Octavius mean by 'the cause'? State in your own words the meaning of the last two lines of the passage - "or till another Caesar... sword of traitors".

Octavius means that the reason for their talk is to start the battle Octavius says that he shall only sheethe his dagger when Caesar's deathis avenged or he himself is killed.

(v) Was Octavius successful in his task of vengeance? How does the play end?

Octavius was successful in his task of vengance the play ends with the triunphat victory of Antony and Octavius but also with a honourable death to Brutus.


3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Cassius
Coming from Sardis, on our former ensign
Two mighty eagles fell, and there they perch'd,
Gorging and feeding from our soldiers' hands,
Who to Philippi here consorted us.
This morning are they fled awy and goen,
And in their stead do ravens, crows, and kites
Fly o'er our heads, and downward look on us,
As we were sickly prey: their shadows seem
A canopy most fatal, under which
Our army lies, ready to give up the ghost.

Messala
Believe not so.

(i) In this extract, Cassius narrates something he has seen. What is it? Did he believe in the significane of such things earlier in his life?Why?
Cassius tells to messala that he had seen two great eagles at sardis which ate from the hands of thier soldiers. But in the morning he finds that the eagles are, gone and in their place ramens, crous and kite have appeared signifying defeat cassius, earlier in his life did not believe in such things as he believed firmly is Epicurus, who did not believe in onwers and protents.


(ii) Give the meaning of : "As we were watching them shadows seem/ A Canopy most fatal." What do these lines signify?


Cassius says that the finds were watching them as if they were about to die and their shadows seen like a canopy that hints death. These lines signify defeact and death to Brutus and Cassius.

(iii) What did Cassius see on the previous day and on hat particular morning? What do these signs signify?

Cassius on the previous day had seen two great edges eating from the hands of his soldier and on that particular morning instead of the eagels there come ravens, kites adn crous looking at them as if they were a prey to them. These signify defeat to the assasinators adn ultimatley their death.

(iv) How can you conclude from what Cassius says, a little latter, that he was prepared for a possible defeat?
Cassius hints that he is prepared for a possible defeat by saying that he is going to battle against his will like Pompey who did so and was defeated in he battle of phrasalie.

(v) How does Brutus console him?
Brutus consoles hom by telling that hate cannot be stopped and hence they should strengthen themselves with paptience and wait for what night commence in the future.


4 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :

Cassius
Then, if we lose this battle,
You are contented to be led in triumph
Through the steets or Rome?

Brutus
No, Cassius, no: think not, thou noble Roman,
That ever Brutus will go bound to Rome;
He bears too great a mind. But this same day
Must end that work the ides of March begun;
And whether we shall meet again I know not.
Therefore our everlasting farewell take.

(i) What has Brutus just said which makes Cassius say the words given, in the extract? Which Roman practice is referred to in Cassius' speech?
Brutus says that he will never commit suicide asit is a ceevardly act acurding to stoicison. The Roamn practive of a plilosophy known as epicurian philosophy is referred to in the speech.

(ii) State briefly to what extent Brutus bears a great mind.
Brutus honourably says that he will never go to inchains. It shouts that Brutus bears Rome a great mind.


(iii) What was begun on the ides of March? How will the words of Brutus be prophetic?

The task of reforming Rome from tynarny has begun on the ides of March. The words of Brutus are prophetil as he ends his life later in the play for ending to task he has begun.

(iv) Do Cassius and Brutus meet again? Why?
Cassius and Brutus do not meet again as they both kil themselves to prevent their capture by Antony and Octavius.

(v) Brutus and Cassius are affected by the latest events. This makes them act in a different way than their normal behaviour. Give one incident to illustrate this.

Brutus is affected by portia's death and he becomes short tempered which is normally the charecer of Cassius on the Contrary, Cassius had become philosophic like Brutus which is depicted whenhe says it was his birthday and he thinks it will also be his deathday.

Act V Scene 2 : Brutus in Action

ASSIGNMENTS


1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Alarum. Enter Brutus and Messala

Brutus
Ride, ride, Messala, ride and give these bills
Unto the legions on the other sie. (Loud alarum)
Let them set on at once, for I perceive
But cold demeanour in Octavius, wing,
And sudden push gives them the overthrow.
Ride, ride, Messala: let them all come down.
(Exeunt)

(i) Where does this scene take place? What is meant by 'these bills'? What is reffered to as 'the legions on the other side'?
This scene takes place at the plains of philippi these fills written orders. The army led by Cassius is referred to as 'the legions on the other side'.

(ii) What instructions does Brutus give? To whom are these instructions to be given?
Brutus instructs Cassius that they should attack inOchavius and his army. These instructions are to be given to Cassius and his army.

(iii) Brutuw hopes to have advantage at this jucture. What indications has he perceived in this regard?
Brutus hopes to defeat Octavius, force are timid and back fighting spirit, and that a sudden attach will be enough to defeat them.

(iv) Give the meaning of: "sudden push gives them overthrow".
Sudden attack will give Octavius and his army a defeat.


(v) What warning did Octavius give to Brutus the previous night? How was the warning taken?
Octavius warns to Brutus that he will amenge Caessl's death. The warning was unfeeded as it was Occording to Cassius, given by a peervish school boy unworths of such honour.

(vi) What change do you notice in the character of Brutus in this scene?
In this scene, Brutus ha sturned implushive and has a sense of urgency at present.


Act V Scene 3 : The Death of Cassius

ASSIGNMENS

Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Cassius
O look, Titinus, look, the villains fly.
Myself have to mine own turn'd enemy;
This ensign here of mine was turning back;
I slew the coward, and did take it from him.

(i) Where does this scene take place? Who was the coward? Why did Cassius slay the coward?
The scene takes place in the battle field at Philippi. The coward is the flag-bearer of casius. Cassius slew the coward as he tried to nis away from the battle field.

(ii) What did Titinius say about the error committed by Brutus? What were the immediate consequences of the error?

Cassius says that he has become the enemy of his own frrops.
(iii) What did Titinius say about the error committed by Brutus? What were the immediate consequences of the error?
Titinius says that Brutus gave the order for the battle too early consequenlty, his soldiers in their confusion turned to look instaed of profeeting cassius and his army.

(iv) On what errand does Cassius now send Titinius? What does Cassius tell Pindarus to do for him?
Cassius sends Titinius to find out whether the men at his camp are friends or foes, Cassius asks piadarus to ascend a hills and find out what is happenign to Titinius.

(v) Pindarus, Cassius' slave enters. What does he say? How does his information seem to confirm Cassius' fears?

Pindarus says tht Titinius had been capture. This information confirm Cassius feals of a defeat and he is completley dejected at this.

(vi) What does Cassius think aloud while Pindarus is away? Why is the day significant to Cassius , in more ways than one?

Cassius thinks himself as a coward for letting his best captured front of his eyes. This day was significant to Cassius in two ways, one was his birthday and the other was his deathday.


2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Titinius
I will be here again, even with a thought. (Exit)
Cassius
Go, Phindarus, get higher on that hill;
My sight was ever thick, Regard Titinius,
And tell me what thou not'st about the field.


(i) Who are Titinius and Pindarus? Where are they at the moment? Why?
Titinius is a friend of cassius while Pindarus is his bondsman. They are the top of hill in the battle field of Philippi. They have como there for shelter when they were surrounded by Antony.

(ii) Explain the meaning " even with a though". Why has Titinius to go?
Titinius says that he will go there and come back faster them the speed of a thought Titinius had to go as Cassius had ordered him to report the events at his sent.

(iii) What report did Pindarus now give about Titinius? How did Cassius interpret this report?
Piadarus reports to Cassius that Titinius was captured. Cassius interprets this reprot himself as a loward for letting the enemy capture Titinius.

(iv) What action did Cassius now take? How did the outcome of this action affect Pindarus? How did (a) Titinius and (b) Brutus react to what Cassus did?
cassius decided to kill himself. Pmdarus had to flee from Rome. Rome as a consequence of this action. Titinius killed himself out of his layalty and Brutus was gelief stricken with Cassius death.


(v) Refer to, or quote, what Cassius said to Brutus earlier in the play to prove that this tragedy could have been avoided. What had Brutus replied to him them? Refer to another occasion when a somewhat similar mistake had been made by Brutus. What is your opinion of Brutus and Cassius in this connection?

Cassius says now Brutus thank yourself . This tongue had not offended so today if cassius might have rul'd" Antoher occasion was when Brutus gave order for the vattle to be held at Philippi. Cassius objected to it. Here, I think Brutus as an in experienced and soldier who ought not have made decisons on the costrary Cassius is an experienced and efficient soldier than Brutus.


3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :
Enter Pindarus
Come hither, sirrah.
In Parthia did I take thee prisoner;
And then I swore thee, saving of thy lfie,
That whatsoever I did bid thee do,
Thou shoudst attempt it. Come now, keep thine oath;

(i) What had Pindarus been looking at? What did he report on what he thought he saw?

Pindarus had been tooking at Titinius who went down hill. He reported to Cassius that Titinius was captured and taken as a Prisioner.

(ii) What is meant by, "I swore thee"? What had Pindarus promised to do? What is he asked to do now?
Promised me" Pindarus had promised to do whatever Cassius tid him to. He is asked by Cassius to stab him.


(iii) Narrate what has happened a few minutes earlier which makes Cassius desperate. Was Cassius noble in taking the final decision about himself? Give a reason to justify your answer.

When Pindarus reported that Titinius was taken pruiners, Cassius was completley dejected and decided to end up his life as he feared defeat in the war and being taken as a prisoner to Rome. Cassius is noble in his decision, becuase he really thinks that going to Rome baned in chains was an ignoble act and it would be more nobler to die inwar than be captured only lead them to tragedy.

(iv) What makes it difficult for Pindarus to keep his oath now?
The Loyatly of Pindarsus towards Cassius makes it difficult for him to keep him oath.

(v) What is the evil influence which drives Cassius towards self destruction? Should one believe in such influences? Why?
The death of Cassius is completley in charecter Moody, nervous, Passionate and offectionated, he fals avictim to his own feeling and delussions and commisss suicide. One should not be influenced by such thouths as they are will only lead them to tragedy.



4 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :

Titinius
What, Pindarus! Where art thous, Pindarus?

Messala
Seek him, Titinius, whilst I go to meet
The noble Brutus, thrusting this report
Into his ears; I may say, thrusting it;
For piercing steel and darts envenomed
Shall be as wlecome to the ears of Brutus
As tidings of this sight.

(i) Where does this scene take place? Who are Titinius and Messala? Why have they come to the scene?

This scene takes place on a hill on the battle fields of Philippi. Titinius and Messala are friends to casius. They have come into the scene to tell Cassius of Brutus victory.

(ii) Where has Pindarus gone? What has made him go away?
Pindarus has flewn away from Rome. He had done so as he killed Cassius though was according to cassius will, it would be considered as a murder.


(iii) What report is Messala going to give Brutus? Why would the report be like thrusting something into Brutus' ear?

Messala is going to report the death of cassius to Brutus. He says t thrusting because this news would be much painful to Brutus than piercking perisoned daggess is his ears.

(iv) Titinius recollects that Brutus has sent a wreath of victor to be given to Cassius. What victory is referred to? What does Titinius do with the wreath? How did Cassius misinterpret the signs fo victory?

Brutus, victory Octavius is referred to. Titinius placed the uneath around Cassius, forehead cassius through Pindarus misinterpreted the sign of victory by thinking that the victorious shouts were from the enemies who hav ecaptured titiness.

(v) State briefly how Titinius pays his respects to Cassius, his dead friend.

Titinius laments over Cassious body and places the wealth on Cassius foreheda. He thins kills lims with the same dagger that Cassisu killed himself.


5 Read the extract given below and answer the questins that follow:
Titinius
Alas, thou hast miscounstrued every thing.
But hold thee, take this garland on thy brow;
Thy Brutus bid me give it thee, and I
Will do his bidding. Brutus, come apace,
And see how I regarded Caius Cassius.

(i) Where is Titinius at this moment? Whom is he talking to?Why?
Titinius is on a till an the battle fied at Philippi. He is talking to the dead bodyof Cassius. Cassius had killed himself because of his desire to be a freeman.

(ii) Explain the meaning of "misconstrued". What are the things that had been misconstrued? For what reason?
Misconstrued Misinterpreted Cassius had misinterpreted the shout of joy by the soldiers as their sheufs for capturing Titinius. He thinks so as pindarus had wirnumed the seene and had reported to Cassius.

(iii) What was the "garland" a sign of? Why did Brutus send it?

The 'garland' was a sign of victory. Brutus send the 'garland' to inform Cassius of Brutus, victory against fctavius.

(iv) Explain the meaning of " regarded". How did Titinius now show his regard? What did Brutus say about Titinius and Cassius when he arrived?
Regarded respected Titinius showed his regard to Cassius by placing the garland around Cassius forhead.

(v) This scene shows the beginning of the end of the conspirators. What reason does Brutus give for what he saw? Explain how his reason is proved to be true in his own case later.
Brutus by looking at Cassius dead body says that Julius Caesar is even more powerful after his death and is turning their daggers towards their bodies. This reason is proved at be true as Brutus also ends his life with the name of Caesar on his lips.


1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Brutus
Are you tow Romans living such as these?
The last of all the Romans, fare thee ell!
It is impossible that ever Rome
Should breed thy fellow.

(i) Where is Brutus? About whom is he speaking?
Brutus is an a hill on the battle field of Philippi. He is speaking about Cassius and Titinius.

(ii) What does he mean by “The last of all the Romans?
Brutus says that Cassius was the last man fit to be called a Roman.

(iii) Give a brief clear account of the events which immediately precede this speech and give rise to it.
Cassius is an a dejected mood. In addition to it, the report given by Pindarus makes him desperate and he kills limself. Titinius out of his layalty of Cassius, kills limself. At this juncture, Brutus give the above speech.

(iv) This event combined with another factor caused the death of Brutus a little later. Explain briefly.



(v) What instructions does Brutus now give his friends?
Brutus kids farewell to all his friends. Prior to this, he asks them to hold his leaguer while he runs on it. Everyday except strato refuse to help him.


Act V Scene 4 : The Battle Lost
E. ASSIGNMENTS

1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Lucilius

O young and noble Cato, art thou down?
Why, now thou diest as bravely as Titinius,
And mayst be honour'd being Cato's son.

First Soldier
Yield, or thou diest.
Lucilius
Only I yield to die:
There is so much that thou wilt kill me straight.
(Offering money)
Kill Brutus, and be honou'rd in his death.


(i) Who is young Cato? What reference was made in the play earlier about his father?
Young cato is the brother–in –law of Brutus. His father is Marcus Cato was a philosopher and he taught against Caesar in the Battle of phrasal.

(ii) In what respect, the death of young Cato is similar to that of Titinius?
Cato and Titinius that had died for the salee of lone and bonus. Cato had die for his lone for the republic while Titinius died out of his lone for Cassius.

(iii) Why would the enemy soldiers not wish to kill Lucilius? Why would Lucilius want to be killed? How does Lucilius escape death?
The enemy soldiers did not wish to kill Lucilius whom they had mistaken to be Brutus as they knew the worth of Brutus. Lucilius wanted to be killed in order to same the life of Brutus Lucilius escapes hi death when Antony recognises him and asks his soldiers to take good care of him as he considered Lucilius worthy to be a friend.

(iv) What is meant by, “Only I yield to die"?
Lucilius says that he is surrendering on the condition that they should kill him.

(v) Who discover that Lucilius was pretending to be Brutuss? What does that person think of Lucilius?
Antony discovers that Lucilius was pretending to be Brutus. Antony now realises the value of having loyal followers and asks his soldiers to take good care of Lucilius.


2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :

Lucilius
Safe, Antonly; Brutus is safe enough;
I dare assure thee that no enemy
Shall ever take alive the noble Brutus;
The god defend him form so great a shame!
When you do find, or alive or dead,
He will you do find, or alive or dead,

(i) In what sense is Brutus safe enough? How are the second and the third lines of the extract prophetic, i.e. indicative o what is going to take place?
Lucilius says that Brutus is safe at present the second and third lines are prophetic as Antony find a dead Brutus and does no win the honour of killing Brutus.

(ii) Who has just been killed when Lucilius is captured? Who has captured Lucilius? What have they done with him?
Young cats has just been killed when Lucilius in captured Antonys soldiers have captured Lucilius they took him to Antony who recognised him and asked the soldiers to take care of Lucikius.

(iii) “The gods defend him from so great a shame!" What was considered shameful according to Roman custom?
According to the Roman custom, defeat was a great shame. And being defeated in a war taken to Rome in chains was a greater shame.

(iv) What is happening on the battlefield? Who is emerging victorious?
On the battle field, the battle between the troops of Brutus and the troops of ochavius and Antony is going on. Antony and ochavius are emerging victorious.

(v) There seems to be two objectives in Lucilius' impersonating Brutus. What do you think are these objectives?
Firstly Lucilus wants to save the life of Brutus and give him some opportunity to escape secondly, he wanted to show his devotion to his master by putting his life in danger.

Act V Scene 5 : The Death of Brutus

E. ASSIGNMENTS


1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Brutus
Nay, I am sure it is, Volumnius.
Thou seest the world, Volumnius, how it goes;
Our enemies have beat us to the pit: (Alarum)
It is more worthy to leap in ourselves,
Than tarry till they push us.

(i) Who is Volumnius? Why does Brutus show intimacy to him? What favour
does Brutus expect from him?
Vlumnius is a friend of Brutus as well as his class –mate at school Brutus shows intimacy to him as he was his school mate Brutus asks Volumnius to hold the sword while he runs over it.

(ii) The ghost of Caesar appeared to Brutus twice. What did the ghost tell Brutus in Sardis? What does it indicate here in Philippi?
The ghost told Brutus at sardis that it would appear again to him at Phillppi. It indicates the ultimate defeat and death of Brutus.

(iii) Name two of Brutus' friends who have already refused to kill him What dos Volumnius say for not agreeing to carry out Brutus' wish?
Clitus and ordanius have already refused to kill Brutus. Volumnius disagress to Cary out Brutus wish by saying that it was not a friend's duty to do such on act.

(iv) Give the meaning of, “Thou seest the world, Volumnius, how it goes, Our enemies have beat us to the pit."
Brutus says that you have seen the ways of the world and our enemies have drives us to a deep pit as it we were animals and those hunters wanted to hunts us down by pushing us the pit.

(v) Briefly state the misfortunes enumerated by Brutus to Volumnius.
Brutus tells that the ghost of Caesar had appeared to him at different times in the night once at sardis and here at Philippi . He fears that he shall have defeat and death.


2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follows:
Brutus
Countrymen,
My heart doth joy, that yet in all my life
I found no man but he was true to me,
I shall have glory by this losing day,
More than Octavius and Mark Antony
By this vile conquest shall attain unto.
(i) Where and when is Brutus speaking?
Brutus speaks these above on the plains of Philippi while giving farewell to his friends.

(ii) What recent events have prompted Brutus to say “ I found no man but he was true to me"?
Earlier in the play, Lucilius impersonates Brutus inorder to make the escape of Brutus early and save his life.

(iii) Would you include Cassius among those who were “true" to Brutus?
Give your reasons briefly.
Cassius at first was not true towards Brutus but later we find that Cassius is ready to anything to maintain his friendship with Brutus.

(iv) Who finally serves Brutus before Octavius and Mark Antony arrive on the scene?
Strato finally serves Brutus before Octavius and Antony arrive on the scene.


(v) Do the speeches of Antony and Octavius which end the play prove Brutus' words to be true as quoted in the last three lines of the above passage?
Yes, the speeches of Antony and Octavius seems to be true as they themselves are praising known that Brutus had gained more glory by losing winning the battle.


3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow
Antony
This was the noblest Roman of them all;
All the conspirators save only he
Did that they did in envy of great Caesar;
He only, in a general honest thought
And common good to all, made one of them,
His life was gentle, and the elements
So mix'd in him, that Nature might stand up
And say to all the world, ‘This was a man!

(i) When does Antony speak these words? Who was ‘the noblest Roman of them all" Which people are included in the world," “all"?
Antony speaks these words when he finds the dead body of Brutus. Brutus was the noblest Roman of them all, refers to the faction of conspirators.

(ii) Give the meaning of :
He only, in a general honest thought
And common good to all, made one of them.

Antony says that Brutus unlike the conspirators had joined the conspiracy be cause he honestly believed that Caesar should be killed for the general good of all people.

(iii) By preferring to the Elizabethan way of thinking, state in what way was the ‘noblest Roman' a perfect human being.

According to the Elizabethans, the human body had four elements earth, air, fire water. A man's nature was determined by the presence of predominant Eleanor in him. The perfect human nature, as in the case of Brutus, had a balance of all four elements.

(iv) What does Octavius order with regard to the funeral of the noblest Roman? Does he deserve such a burial? Give a reason to justify your answer.
Octavius orders that Brutus funeral should be held with military honors. Brutus surely observed such a burial as he was the man as a true Roman thought of purging Rome and eventually died for the nation in is attempt to do so.

(v) Briefly state how the play propagates the idea that disloyalty and conspiracy do not succeed.

The conspirators who were once loyal friends to Caesar had turned against him out of sheer jealousy. Consequently, the all up their lives and the good triumphant the end believed that Caesar should be killed for the general good of all people.





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