National disasters occur in each and every country of the world and our common to mankind from the start of the world. But these national disasters occur at an usually high frequency in our country. The national disasters can be broadly classified into four categories:
National Calamities like earthquakes, floods, typhoons etc.
Our country is highly prone to national calamities. We have geographical regions for the desert glaciers, oceans to dense jungles. State like Assam and Bihar are highly prone to floods, which result in large scale loss of life and property. Large typhoons and tornadoes also affect Orrisa and the Southern states. States like MP, Gujarat and Uttaranchal art known for their destructive earthquakes. National disasters have been minimized and dealt with by setting up national disaster management committee which comprises of cabinet ministers, bureaucrats, eminent scientists and experts in studying floods, earthquakes etc. The job of such a committee would be to formulate suitable policies regarding the national calamities and coordinate rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The government has drawn up the blueprint for such a draft of the the Gujarat earthquake. Also people should be taught at school and college level as to how to react during a national calamity. Special weather stations and earthquake measuring and studying centers should be set up in the high-risk regions so as to predict these calamities and give sufficient reaction time to the people.
National disasters like War
In terms of loss of human life and devastation of the economy, war is that the top most position. The 3 to 14 days war that we fought with Pakistan pushed back our economy by five years after each war. Along with this, the low intensity conflict that we are fighting in Jammu and Kashmir and the Northeast is slowly bleeding our country. To avoid such situation the need to have a strong Army. The defense forces have to be provided with the state of the art equipment and their training standards have to be very high. Force multiplier is like satellite imagery has to be done to strengthen the intelligence network. This will help us in taking preemptive measures against nations. Besides these, the civilian population must also be provided compulsory military training so that we can have a third and fourth line of defense. People should be taught as to how to react to and air raid built bunkers, stop sabotage etc.
Epidemics not only reduce the quality of human capital, but also cause high loss of life. Epidemics can wipe out entire villages and towns as clearly seen during the Surat plague. These can be prevented and controlled by the adoption of proper methods of hygiene and sanitation. The municipal authorities should ensure that garbage dumps are cleared once in two days at least. Neighborhood, cleanliness groups must be set up and undertake regular cleanliness. At school and college level, training should be provided in disease prevention, cure and control. Public awareness campaigns should be used to eradicate diseases. Beside this, many scenes should be made available at subsidized prices. Education also plays an important part in making people live clean and healthy lives.
Financial crisis can cripple a country's economy and destroy the country's progress. The recent financial crisis in South East Asian countries is a case in point. To withstand the depression of two days what I economy, a country should have adequate forex reserves. These help the country in purchasing goods from abroad and also in maintaining its financial credibility. By globalizing its economy, a countries economy become interrelated with each other economics and also expand its market. Thus, in times of financial crisis, other countries can help out each other and also the country's economy will not depend for help on a specific region for its income. By encouraging self employment, the People's dependence upon the government will decrease and they will be better prepared to meet any financial emergency.
Disaster after disaster and huge casualties in each of them appears the destiny of India. In the last months, India has faced Orrisa cyclone, water scarcity in Gujarat and Rajasthan, floods in Bihar and west Bengal and massive quake in the Kutch region of Gujarat.
For implementing of these measures three modes exist. First is adoption mode, in which each village is adopted by some agency. The agency takes all the measures for minimizing risk in planned way. But adoption critically impairs the People's spirit of self help and community organization, and not very compatible for indicated of planning.
Second is demonstration mode, where model project is built by the government on some agency and is expected that communities would copy the example. As we know that the model reduced by nonlocal expert is considerably altered in field. And in lack of consensus on content, building model becomes an and in itself.
Third mode is dissemination mode, there by information is even to people about technologies and option for minimizing risk. People are also being overpowered to make use of it. It creates some lack of confidence in people's own creativity. What if risk minimizing efforts have been spelled after complete study of local practices analyzing their strengths and weaknesses and are based on the range of available material and supported by various voluntary teams and NGOs it can become an ideal mode of implementation.
All these modes can also be used for the habitation if disasters occur. It should always be remembered that by implementations of above reasons, we can only minimize the devastation, we cannot stop it. National forces are too strong. Hence there is always need for well-planned and efficient system for rescue and relief. Our crisis management group, which exist from the strict upward with a text being a committee, headed by cabinet secretary and being failed repeatedly. And for mission of many more committees is not required. We need full fledged government machinery which is trained to see disaster management as a routine part of administration. And a force of personal scale is more critical aspect of rescue and relief. The force could be mobilized immediately and should be bid up by adequate equipments for medical, surgery, power, telecom and temporary housing operations.
Raising and new force in and era of downsizing governments is not fiscally visible. 11th finance commission in this regard gives all sensible suggestion. In each state a group of 200 to 300 personnel to be formed. Observes should be drawn from different government Cadres associated with the service needed for rescue and relief. Her in all they would constitute a 5000 to 6000, which could be deployed anywhere in the country once a disaster strike. These persons should be trained annually for disaster conditions to achieve high degree of preparedness.
Another alternative is the use of armed forces. Almost every country uses them in the time of need. During Gujarat earthquake only the government organization, which had not waited for my invocation of aid to civil authority by local administration it begin relief work immediately. It has also done commendable work in earlier disasters. It spread across the country can bring disciplined and organized response to the calamities.
Event like earthquake, accident, fire, landslides etc. requires highly trained and specially equipped teams. Hence, some engineering units of Armed Forces can be trained to handle fire others can be specialized to handle earthquake, other in landslide etc. Medical personnel can be identified from the military, central and state government health services and can be used in emergency duty in rotation. Railways and airlines in similar way can organize their personal and a set for quick deployment of trained forces and their equipments.
Third alternative for this force can be motivated volunteered teams. This is being used in many of our countries. But, in India due to lack of volunteer addition it cannot assume the lead role. At most it can supplement the government's efforts.
Than force organized from this survey can be made available to statutory empowered central or state-level disaster management organization. This organization should have a skeleton of expert managerial team specially trained from disaster management. This organization should have 24 control rooms in New Delhi and state capitals. This organization should also develop link around the world, as Gujarat quake has shown that fight against disaster has now become international.