NDM1 - Origin, Symptoms and Cure for NDM1

NDM1 is short form of New Delhi Metallo beta lactamase. NDM1 has become the topic of discussion because of the name New Delhi given to it which is the capital of India. Read on for more on the gene

NDM1 is short form of New Delhi Metallo beta lactamase. NDM1 has become the topic of discussion because of the name New Delhi given to it which is the capital of India.

Full form of NDM1?

The full form of NDM1 New Delhi Metallo beta lactamase. It is named after the Capital of India, New Delhi as it is assumed to have originated from India.

What is NDM1?

As given above NDM1 or New Delhi Metallo beta lactamase is a gene. It mixes with the genetics of a person and becomes part of the DNA. This gene produces an enzyme. This enzyme is given the name as Metallo beta lactamase. This enzyme actually makes the bacteria resistant to the antibiotics given to the human body. The human body generates antibodies against the commonly occurring bacteria in nature. The normal bacteria kills the antibodies. Due to this enzyme, the bacteria become stronger and can resist these antibiotics as well. So, this gene has become a threat as it is atibiotic resistant.
Carbapenems are the antibiotics produced by to tackle bacterial infections. These gene attacks these antibiotics and makes them ineffective. Most common bacterial infection is the E.Coli.

Origin of NDM1?

A person from Sweden came to India in 2009. He was diagnosed with a bacterial infection. It was found that the medicines provided i.e. the antibiotics proved inactive to remove the bacteria. So, he was shifted back to Sweden. There the infection was identified. The patient was suffering from Klebsiella, a bacterial infection which causes cough and cold. Here the unknown mystery gene was found in his body. This gene was discovered and publicized.
After massive diagnosis and widespread research, this gene was found in India, Pakistan and many Asian countries and was supposed to be transported from these regions to Europe and USA.
Reports also suggest that the gene was picked up at Indian clinics specially at the cosmetic clinics. Here the gene was transferred into the blood of some tourists. The gene then migrated to US and UK. Undoubtedly, the gene originated from India and hence the name was given to this unique gene as New Delhi Metallo beta lactamase or NDM1.

Reported cases of NDM1

So far as per the official reports, the following number of cases have been reported and patients are under observation and treatment.
United Kingdom – 37
US – 3
Indian subcontinent – 143

Symptoms of NDM1

The NDM1 gene is associated with two majorly found bacterial infection. These infections include E.Coli and Klebsiella as stated above.
Some of the symptoms for NDM1 positive patients are
1. E.Coli and Klebsiella bacterial infection
2. Urinary tract infections
3. Bacteremia
4. Pneumonia
If a patient is found to be diagnosed with bacterial infection or any such symptoms as given above, he is immediately tested for the NDM1 gene.

How does NDM1 spread?

As NDM1 is basically a gene which is associated with bacteria, any NDM1 positive patient can spread this gene to other person as follows

1. NMD1 transfer through air:
The bacteria easily passes through air. An NDM1 positive patient if coughs or sneezes, the fluids in his body enter the air. These fluids contain the bacteria and possibly the NMD1 gene as well. Any other person coming in contact with this bacteria can possibly be infected with the gene.

2. NMD1 trasfer through contact:
An NDM1 infected person may touch doorknobs, vehicle handles or any other commonly touched object. The bacteria easily gets transferred to such places. If not cleaned properly any normal person touching these objects will also get infected.

3. NMD1 trasfer through moisture: During rainy season, there is a lot of humidity and hence moisture in air. Bacteria very easily gets mixed with water or any such fluids. So, the moisture in air is a common habitat for bacteria. So, in rainy season even the atmosphere around an NDM1 patient is supposed to have NDM1 gene filled bacteria.

4. NMD1 trasfer due to improper hygiene: As explained, bacteria may rest anywhere due to positively tested patient. So, it is advisable to keep the hospitals and public places hygienic.

Cure for NDM1

As of now, there is no cure for NDM1. NDM1 is an incurable gene. The infection will also not allow any antibiotics to act against or fight the bacteria. So, the patient cannot live once he is tested positive with NDM1.
GSK-299423 is a chemical which might be useful for terminating the NDM1 gene. But scientists are still researching on any possible cure of NDM1. Normally, it takes at least 2 years to market an antibiotic into the market after all the tests and rounds. The possible cure and the antibiotic for the NDM1 are expected to take at least 5 years. Till then prevention is the only cure for NDM1.

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