Influence of Islam
The advent of Afghans, Turks and Persians to India and settling in the land and conquer of large chunk of India and had ruled significantly. The Hindus have come and settled before Muslims, have formulated their cultural norms and began to live. So many kingdoms of outside have conquered lands in India but they merged with traditions and culture of Hindu people. But, Muslims have different culture and have not merged but began to influence the Hinduism. Greeks, Sakas and Huns were merged but Islam has its own way and Hinduism, on the other hand influenced Islam. Both have been influenced by each other. Both have contributed and both are part of the Indian culture.
Societal influences of Islam on India
Muslims under the rule of Delhi sultans primarily began to grow through conversions or taking Muslims for high posts those come from abroad. Hindus are in the fear that their girl child may be fallen in the hands of Muslims, they began to marry them in early age led to the starting of child marriages more in number. Purdah system was followed by Hindus. The positive influence of Islam on Hinduism is that their food menu was filled with favourite items which are taken by Hindus like Pudao, Kebab and Kheer. Dress style was adopted with Salwar and Achakan etc.
The influence of Hinduism on Islam started with conversions. Hindu converts have not left their ways of social practices like marriage practices and festival celebrations. Hindu converts could not leave social evil "Caste system" even they are converted which led to casteism in Islam. Hindu converts began to worship shrines and saints. They have not left their fear in black magic. With these reasons, casteism , few hindu festivals and worshiping saints entered the Islam.
With the contact of two religions, Sufism was born in Islam which advocated universal brotherhood and union of God. They condemned the caste system and idol worship. With the influence of Sufism, Bhakti movement was started in Hinduism which has advocated the same principles like union of God and universal brotherhood. Preachers of Bhakti movement also condemned the caste system.
Cultural influences of Islam
In the rule of Delhi Sultans, there are constructions which are designed by Muslims and built by Hindus who could not shun their artistic excellence which they have shown in temple constructions. The materials used in temples were used later for the construction of Mosques which led to consist of Hindu element in Islamic constructions. Sometimes, they have only morphed the temple into Mosque by changing roof. These are reasons for generation of Indo-Islamic art.
Urdu language is formed by Hindi syntax and Arabic vocabulary. The blend had given a new language which was primary language for Muslims in Madrasas.
Music under the influence of Hindu-Islam contact
The music is also under influence of contact of Islam and Hindu cultures. Sitara and Tabala were found. Sitara is combination of Indian Veena and Iranian Tambura. Tabala is modified version of Mrudanga. Qawwali was formed under the influence of Hindu-Islam contact.
Every Indian must aware that the food and attire he has, is the combination of these religions and must learn that if they are united they can be sonorous sound as given by Sitara.
India has treasure of culture. Though the Muslim Emperors ruled our India for many years and many of them ruined our cultured temples/monuments etc., the noted Kings, sorry,Emperors like Akbar,did many things to make shelter to keep our culture in a safe mode. Akbar appointed many learned persons in his courtyard to translate the vedas from sanskrit to persian. This may be interpreted in the other way that He gave his patronage to persian rather than sanskrit. But the truth behind is He made his people to understand about the Indian cultural based language Sanskrit. He married Jothbai, a Hindu lady, to make his people to have cordial relationship with Hindus and thereby he enrich the Hindu Muslim Unity.
Moreover, many real learned muslims knows that the teachings of Quron,Bible and Hindu vedas are nothing but similar and the way of teaching only differs.
Good article with lots of good information, As per my knowledge Urdu is a combination of Hindi and Persian.Arabic language may have some influence on urdu but profound influnce is from Hindi and persian.
Just to add Persian was the court language of moghals.
Sikhism, one of the world's major religions developed in India when the region was being ruled by the Mughals. Guru Nanak had declared - 'here is no Hindu, there is no Muslim'. The Indian culture got influenced during the period of early Islamic intrusions into India during 8th to 12th centuries and medieval period during 1206 to 1858 when Muslims ruled India. Most of the present day Muslims in India were Hindus in the past who converted as Muslims during that period. The phrase 'Dharam Sankat' ( religion dilemma) in Hindi language got developed as the individuals had to decide either to get killed or adopt another religion.