The article describes the meaning of doping in sports. It also tells about the various medicines and banned drugs and methods used by the athletes in sports. It gives the duties and obligations of the athletes and other sports personnel to prevent doping. It lists the various side effects of the drugs used in doping such a EPO and others.It gives suggesstions and solutions to prevent doping in sports.It also gives the duties of the National anti-doping agency.
Why do the athletes use the sports medicines?
There are various reasons why the athletes use the banned drugs. They know the probable consequences of it but they still take the risk. I have mentioned about some of the reasons why the athletes are sometime forces to take the challenge or they take it voluntarily.
First, all the doping instruments are performance enhancing. hey may improve their performance and may result in their unfair advantage over the other. However, many of the athletes argue that the use of these drugs perform the same function as the special suits and other devices designed for the rich sportsperson that give them a comparative advantages over their opponents. It is widely believed that there are two kinds of doping drugs. First category of doping drugs are said to be the upstream drugs that are good for the athletes as they help to improve their health when they are undergoing some kinds of physical, physiological and biological problems. However, the other category of doping drugs called the downstream drugs are relatively use by the athletes to improve their performance for a short period of time while the contest lasts. After the contest ends, the drugs have a negative impact on them and their health. Thus, the win does not go to the right candidate. The use of such drugs is same as use of syringes to get more milk from a buffalo or a cow.
There are some sports like marathon race, swimming and others where the athletes need to rely much on the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. The more the oxygen blood carries to the lungs, better is the chances of stamina power as the runner does not get tired soon. Thus, these drugs improve the aerobic metabolism of the athlete. He may try to take these drugs rather than going through a tough session of practice, self-control, intense muscle exercises, altitude training etc. Some of the drugs commonly used in doping are glucocorticoids, EPO etc. These drugs make sufficient provisions in the body for the storage of the glycogen that is responsible for oxygen and water content in the body.
In sports like body-building, weight lifting etc, it is very essential for a person to maintain a good balance between the size of his body and the biceps and triceps. These muscles require a huge amount of protein intake that cannot be supplemented with the original intake through food. It requires additional supplements like amino acids bars and others. They increase the protein synthesis of the body while neglecting the intake of the other essential nutrients.
Some athletes may try to maintain good healthy habits like sufficient sleep, proper hunger and water intake, lesser fatigue etc, they generally use analgesics, cardio-respiratory drugs, depressants etc. Amphetamines, cannabinoids, alcohol, beta-blockers are some of the other drugs that are used for the same purpose.
Some athletes may be experiencing huge pressure for playing for the international team as he may be the best player for that team. In such a case, he is generally told by the teammates and the coaches that the doping is the only way by which he can forget his pain and then play for hi team. These drugs are stronger than the normal doses of analgesics that we get and make the nerves dead. These nerves are then unable to reach the correct part of the cerebrum due to which the pain is killed for a time being.
Duties of athletes in sports to prevent doping
The athletes must not try to use, at any cost any of the prohibited drugs or doping medicines. He must have the latest information as to the new list of banned substances and drugs published by NDA from time to time.
To make their coaches and other people associated with them aware of the anti-doping policies and ensure that any medical tests and examination carried out for major or minor injuries does not go against the anti-doping laws set up by the sports council of the country.
To take the responsibility for any of the illegal consumption and ingestion of the drugs.
It is the responsibility of the novice players going for the Indian Olympic team to ensure and provide information best to their knowledge regarding their medical history. If they are not the members of the sports federation of India and have been selected for the team due to their extraordinary talents, they must be ready for the collection of the samples and the tests to be conducted before allowing them to join the squad.
Duties and responsibilities of the sports personnel in preventing doping in sports
All the medical and sports personnel be aware of the new and banned list of substances along with the proper use of the medical syringes and medicines on the sportsperson so that they comply with their codes and principles laid down by NADA and the sports council of the country.
They must exercise their power and influence to prevent the athletes from indulging into doping practices rather than motivating them to take these banned drugs. They must try to foster in them the spirit of sportsmanship and the correct attitudes in the athletes. The athletes must be prepared on account of natural practices and exercises and not through artificial and quick ways.
Duties of a sports council of India to prevent doping
To see that the codes and the principles of NADA regarding the anti-doping policies are properly implemented.
To take sufficient measures against the defaulters and the athletes who fail to comply with these policies and break the trust of the audience and sport fans.
To provide for adequate provisions so as to register each and every member with the federation, be it the athlete, sports personnel or support members, coaches and all others.
It is the duty of a sports federation of a country to respect and trust the investigations made by the NADA or any other UN agency against doping in sports without having to demand the another hearing in a court of law provided that the investigation is made as per the provisions and codes of anti-doping laws.
It should ensure that the athletes and the sportsperson who are not registered as a member of the national federation are available for the sample collection before the Olympic games. They should also ensure that the federation keeps updated information about them and their medical history.
To report their secret findings and share the information regarding the athletes and the support personnel as and when asked by the Indian Olympic Committee (IOC).
Procedure followed in order to prevent doping cases just before the Olympic games
Since it is not possible to examine each and every player just before the Olympic games, any athlete may be selected for the examination and the tests just before the tournament. No athlete can question the decision regarding the tests to be performed on him provided they are as per the provisions of the anti-doping laws and it does not go against the medical history of the athlete. A Doping Control Officer may notify the athlete about the decision of the federation to examine him and to perform the anti-doping tests. He is also made aware about the correct procedure that shall be followed and his rights regarding the prevention of the tests if they are not as per the provisions of the anti-doping laws. He may call a witness that shall be allowed to back him during the entire procedure and the athlete have a sense of security.
Procedure for the collection of the samples
Athletes are then taken to the lab where they are given the choice to choose between the different sample vessels and then ensure that none of them have been tampered with or are contaminated in any way with dust, dirt, pathogens, powder of any kind etc. and are properly sterile with the recommended chemicals. After the selection of the vessel, the athlete along with the DOC of the same sex is taken to the bathroom or the wash room where the urine sample is collected. The representative of the athlete may also come along with him but have not access to the sample collected. The sample can only be viewed by the DOC and the athlete himself. The DCO shall ensure that the volume of the sample collected is adequate to perform the lab analysis. If the sample collected is insufficient, the DCO may call for another collection on the same day or on other stipulated day.
Division of sample by the athlete
After the collection of the sample by DCO, he asks the athlete to divide the sample into two bottles. The required amount of the urine sample is placed in "A" bottle by the athlete himself unless he is disable. The rest of the sample is placed in the "B" bottle as a reserve for unforeseen circumstances or for another test to ensure the reliability of the first test. After the division, the sample bottles are sealed with the the provided seal or tapes so that there is no leakage or tampering. After the sealing, the DCO confirms the Ph of the sample and send it for testing.
Documentation and analysis
After the sample is sent, the athlete is required to fill up a doping control form that should contain all the information regarding the additional supplements taken by him in the past or recently and his full medical history. He should provide correct and updated information. One copy is sent to the testing lab and the other copy is retained by the DCO. If asked for, the athlete must be provided with third copy of the form having the details of the code numbers and the address where the sample has been sent for testing. It must be noted that the lab does not have any knowledge about the identity of the athlete to prevent any fraudulent activities. After these documentations, the samples are sent to WADA recognized labs where the sample from "A" bottle is testes and the other bottle is stored that can be used to verify the adverse findings from the first bottle. From the lab, the reports are sent to the NADA or the local sports body.
Circumstances in which the athlete is alleged to be involved in doping
If it is found that the sample contains the prohibited substance but the limits are within the normal range found in the human body naturally, the athlete is not alleged to be involved in doping. But if the sample is deemed to contain the levels of the banned drugs and substances that exceeds the normal level formed endogenously, he is punished as per the level of offence. However, there is another exception to this regard. if the athlete is able to prove that the abnormal range of the banned drug found in his body is due to some physiological or metabolic absurdity, he may be exempted.
However, the lab can report its abnormal findings to NADA if the tests has been performed as per the standards methods such as IRMS and it can also prove that the chemicals found are of exogenous origin that is it is not formed inside the body, no further investigation shall be necessary.
It may also happen that the value of the banned drug does not deviate much from that found naturally in the body and the IRMS method has proved to be a failure in verifying the exogenous origin of the chemical but a reference to the androgens steroid profile revels the possibility of the drug intake by the athlete, he may be asked for further investigation. In this case, the T/E ratio must be within the range of 1 to 4 so that the anti-doping organizations can conduct the required tests or analyze the past records of the athlete.
There is also a chance that the lab has not resorted to any reliable method such as IRMS and does not have recourse to past three tests records of the athlete but have alleged him to be involved in doping, the anti-doping organizations may create a longitudinal profile of the athlete. After the creation of this profile, three non-notice tests are are to conducted within a period of three months. If this profile of the athlete is not normal backed up by the three subsequent tests, it is reported to NADA as Analytic Adverse finding.
It may also happen in the rarest of the rare cases that boldenone is reported to be present in the urine of the individual in extremely low quantity and the exogenous origin of the chemical is not confirmed, further investigation may be called for.
Present detection methods for the banned drugs in the samples collected from the athletes
There are generally three cases that arise when the sample collected tests positive that is it shows that drug is present on the blood sample or the urine sample collected from the athlete.
The sample tests positive with the drug that has been banned. The drug used has been used to enhance the performance. In such a case, not further inquiry is necessary and the athlete may be punished.
The sample tests positive but the drug detected does not enhance the performance of the athlete. it may have been used as a part of the medical treatment. However, if the prior sanction has not been obtained by the athlete from NADA, no sanction must be granted to him.
It may happen that the tests show the presence of some unwanted chemicals but it could not be detected due to the use of masked agents by the athlete. Even in this case, the athlete is punished though the exact nature of the chemical could not be determined.
There are various problems that arise in the testing. First is the use of the masking agents as already discussed. Another problem is that the list of the banned substances is getting longer each year. Hence, the labs have to modify and then develop the new techniques for the detection of the new banned drugs. Another problem is that the athlete may claim that his financial position is such that he cannot afford to buy these drugs while in reality, he may have presented wrong details. He may claim that the drug found is of endogenous origin to which the lab does not have any answer. The present detection techniques are based on the three stages. In the first stage, the methods such as the chromatography, liquid or gas is used to separate the chemical from the sample. Spectrometry may also be used to obtain high sensitivity in the tests. Second stage consists of the study of the specified physical and chemical properties of the drug that is suspected to be present. The specified chemicals and methods such as filtration, precipitation etc. can be used to detect the exact drug. The third stage consists of the separation of the collected samples based on the drugs and the intensity of the drugs found. Chemicals like the recombinant growth hormone may also be used that is freely available in the market and is also cheaper.
Prohibited substances and chemicals in doping cases
Hormones and other related chemicals
Gonadotrophins (e.g. LH, HCG.This chemical is prohibited in males only.
Corticotrophins and insulins
Prohibited hormones antagonists
Anastrozole, Aminoglutethimide, Exemestane, Formestane and Testolactone.
Agents modifying myostatin function or the metabolic functions.
Raloxifene,tamoxifen, toremifene in the class SERMs or Selective Endrogen Receptor Modulators.
Class of substances prohibited in sports
Beta Blockers. Some of the examples of Beta blockers are Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carvedilol etc.
All types of alcohols.
Alpha-reductase inhibitors such as probenecid.
All Beta-2 Agonists except salbumatol
Special cases in which the athletes are allowed to use the drugs
The athlete must report to the DCO that his health is getting damaged or impaired as a result of the stoppage of the concerned drug or the banned substances. It must e backed up by the prescription from the doctor.
It must be made clear to the athlete that he shall not use any drug that shall act as an enhancement to the performance or the performance enhancing drugs and shall be a disadvantage to the other opponents. The use of the drug must be made only in special cases where the drug restores the normal health conditions of the athlete and not enhance the existing normal health. The use of any drug to increase the normal endogenous levels of that chemical is not considered as an exemption to the rule.
There is no other alternative available to the use of that particular drug or the banned substance for improving the health of the athlete.
If the athlete has used any prohibited substance earlier due to which the necessity for the use of other prohibited drug has risen, it is not considered to be a sufficient reason for grating TUE (Therapeutic Use exemption).
Requirements of a TUE form
Evidence of the proper diagnosis must be included in the form.
Photocopies of the genuine reports of examination and medical tests.
All the tests and reports performed by the WADA accredited labs must be attached therein.
A written statement by the doctor attending the athlete stating the true facts as to why the prohibited substance has to be used to maintain normal health conditions and why any other alternative could not be used in this regards.
In case the symptoms of the athlete without the use of the banned drug cannot be adequately shown by the doctor, it must be backed up by an independent medical opinion regarding the health of the athlete.
The photo of the athlete must be attached with two copies, one is to be kept by the DCO and other by the NADA. The information given by the athlete must be true and fair to the best of his knowledge. A witness must also be present at the time of filling the form and he must also sign in the form.
Procedure regarding the therapeutic use exemption
Any national hevel athlete who requires a TUE form for the reasons mentioned above, he must apply with the prescribed details to the Therapeutic Use Exemption Committee (TUEC) that is a department working under the control of NADA. If the approval is granted, the TUE shall be applicable only for a specified time period that is mentioned in the granted form. It has to be resubmitted with the updated conditions of the athlete after the expiry of the time period. The committee may or may not grant approval consequently. It is not enough for an athlete just to submit the form and then start the drug intake. If he does so, it shall be a violation of the anti-doping codes, and he shall be penalized. Generally, the deadline for the submission of the TUE form is 21 days before the commencement of an event. Sometimes, it may happen that the athlete need a approval quite ahead of time due to some emergency conditions. In this case, the committee shall give an retroactive approval prior to authorization. However, this approval should not be taken as an authorization for the prolong use of the drug. It is valid only till the emergency situation lasts. There are two conditions in which such a prior approval may be granted to the athlete:
When the situation is such that it is a emergency to start the treatment with the help of that drug. In this case, the committee must be informed about the complete scenario from the doctors attending the athlete. Later on, a written report and the copy of the situation and tests shall be sent to the committee.
It may happen in the rarest of the rare cases that the athlete did not have sufficient time to wait for the approval of the committee or he could not send an application due to very strong reasons or the committee did not have time to review the application of the athlete, he may be granted a retroactive approval.
Places from where the athletes receive banned drugs
There are many sources for the athletes to get the banned drugs in doping. One common place is the black market. Most of the illegal organizations and pharmacist shops sell these medicines in black. The industries manufacturing these medicines are often the unregistered companies whose main aim and the target is the athlete and the people addicted of these drugs. The medicines are sold to the athletes at a higher price than the usual and under the cover the famous brands. The market opens only for a specified time period during which the transactions take place. It is a certain thing that the drugs are not sold to all the athletes but only to a few customers. The athletes generally avoid going by themselves but have various agents who get these medicines for them.
Another source of obtaining these medicines is the mail order and courier. The famous lifestyle magazines as well as the periodicals publish the advertisements for the athlete and also give the contact details of the agents from where to obtain these medicines. There us no control over the vast expanding market of these drugs through the courier or the mail order. Not only these, internet is another place from where the athletes can inquire about the agents selling these drugs.
Family of the athlete is another source of the selling of these medicines. They are often unaware of the harm these medicines do to the life career of the sportsperson and provide them these drugs knowingly or unknowingly. They are easily able to get the banned drugs that are used for the treatment of the chronic diseases such as the heart failure, diabetes, kidney stones etc. These diseases require the supplements that can easily be obtained by the family members of the athletes as they are not banned for the common citizens. Like the beta blockers are used in the cure of the heart failure but they are banned for the athlete. The hospitals generally sell these medicines to the athletes who bid the highest.
Education of the pharmacists and others as a strong tool against doping in sports
The shopkeepers must be taught and directed not to sell these medicines to the athletes. They must be made aware of the potential harm they do to the athlete and the pride of the country in the Olympic games. They must understand that there careless attitude towards the sale of these medicines is bringing shame to their country in the Olympic games. If none of these work to be quite inefficient, they must be made aware of the punishments to the seller of these medicines mentioned in the anti-doping law of NADA. Their day to day activity must be monitored and they must be a given a list of banned substances so that they may not blame the thing on their insufficient knowledge about the drug.
Not only the shopkeepers, but also the athletes must be taught to know the side effects of these medicines on their health. They must be made aware of the latest list of the banned drugs and methods. They must be inculcated with the spirit of the sportsmanship and patriotism. They must look on the sports as a passion and not as a commercial game. It must be made clear to them that the country shall benefit much more from them if they stay healthy and fit rather than winning a few contest through the wrong use of the drugs. Strict punishment to be given to the sports person who break and violate all the rules and flouts them openly. They must either be fined or sent to prison. Additional workshops to teach them about the nutritional food and supplements that are permitted by the law as well as healthy for their health must be given. They must be taught the perfect use of the food available to them in order to build up their stamina, muscles power, body-building, strength etc. required by the various sports. For example, the carbohydrate food after each competition can give them the increase and enhanced endurance. Protein rich food can help in body building. There are some athletes who have the fear of being discovered. Hence, they do not take even the medicines for the headache just for the fear of being discovered in the tests. They torture the body that creates a unhealthy condition for them. On the other hand, there are another group of athletes who take the medicines for every small disorder that they face. Both are not good and hence, the proper education of the athletes is essential so that they can act discretely and wisely.
Other measures to prevent or control doping
A proper survey must be conducted to see how prevalent is doping in India. NADA and the other sports council also conduct surveys to find out the extent to which the drugs are sold in the black market or the extent to which the athletes are exposed to the sources of these banned drugs usd in doping. In practical life, it is very difficult to conduct the survey. It is equally difficult as predicting the black money in India. Not only this, a survey can also be conducted aiming at the attitudes, behavior, beliefs and the forces that motivate these athletes to resort to these drugs in doping. A survey may also be conducted that aim to find the extent of doping in other countries and the steps taken by the other countries to prevent doping. Moreover, the sociological, physiological, psychological and physical impacts of the drugs must also be studies very carefully to know and have the full information about the potential harms that these drugs carry. For example, the probable harmful impacts of the gene doping has not yet been verified. Thus, it becomes of prime importance to conduct these surveys without which it shall be very difficult to prevent doping.
A lot of development has to take place in the medical tests and techniques employed to detect the presence of these drugs and banned chemicals. The athletes sometimes use the diuretics and other masking agents so that the consumption of the drugs cannot be detected by any standard tests. Besides these, a lot of research has to be initiated in the field of the future scope of the new evolving techniques such as physical and gene manipulation and biotechnology.
The syllabus on the doping in sports for both medical and other reasons and reasons must be included in the medical careers and field. It should be made compulsory for all the students studying medical science.
Awareness must be spread in the shopkeepers, general public, coaches, sports personnel, and other educators so that the doping can be prevented. The awareness can be spread through the periodic workshops or through the print media or visual media.
It is necessary to include the athletes and the other persons involved in the promotion of sports in all the national and international levels meetings of the NADA and WADA as no one knows better than the athletes themselves. They may provide some amicable solutions to the problem. Each category of sports must be given a chance to send a representative to the meeting. The athlete selected must have a clean past records regarding the doping cases.
It is necessary to track the channels of the sources of these drugs. It may be done by private inquiry from the athletes. The industries and the firms manufacturing medicines and other drugs must be closely monitored so that they may not manufacture or market the banned drugs to the athlete.
Side effects of Anabolic steroids
The word Anabolic stands for "tissue and muscle building". These are the chemicals that help in tissue building and accelerated growth and development of the body bone and muscles. These are generally used by the body-builders. These chemicals are also called Androgenic steroids as they perform the dual function of making the masculine characters in men such as deep throat and pubic hair. These chemicals to small extent are found naturally in the body but they can be obtained from exogenous sources as well. The anabolic steroids tend to fasten the rate of protein synthesis in some parts of our body such as genital and reproductive parts, bone and muscles of the forearms. The athletes take these anabolic steroids to improve their performance and to remove the fatigue and enhance recovery after every sport. Some of the general side effects of the anabolic steroids are:
Hypertension or a high increase in the blood pressure as they are very powerful chemicals.
Liver and kidney dysfunction as the digestive organs are unable to tackle these medicines well.
Infertility as they directly affect the genitals.
Rough skin and pimples or acne vulgaris.
Brain tumor or in other parts of the body.
Male specific effects of anabolic steroids
Cancer of the prostate gland which is a reproductive organ responsible for the synthesis of the semen.
Breast development in males due to improved male hormones.
Decrease in the levels of the male hormones after some time if the medicine is stopped.
Decreased sperm production due to the infections and damages to the reproductive organs.
Female specific affects of the anabolic steroids
Male like characters like the deep voice and development of excess secondary sexual characters such as hair.
Decrease in the size of the breasts.
Irregular and painful menstruation.
Side effects of hormones and other related drugs
Hormones are the biological chemicals found in the our body naturally who acts as a messenger to carry the information from various parts of our brain and help in the coordination of the activities of the other organs. Unlike the enzymes, they do not change their form while delivering the message. EPO or Erytropoetin is a chemical hormone that is artificially taken by the athletes to increase the red blood cell count in their body so that the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood can be improved and they may derive more energy. ACTH or Adrinocorticoids tropic hormone is a hormone that is released by the pituitary gland in our body and it helps in the improvement of the levels of the corticosteroids that ultimately give them the strength of muscles. It is a indirect way to improve the strength.Human growth hormone is another hormone released by the pituitary gland that helps in the improvement in the height and shape of one's body. These are generally taken by the body builders or sports where huge strength is necessary.Gonadotropins are another set of hormones responsible for the development of primary as well as secondary set of sexual characters in males and females. Some of the side effects of the artificial administration of the hormones are:
Heart attack as all the hormones generally pass through our heart. In scientific terms, it is also called Myocardial infarction.
Increase blood pressure or hypertension.
Increase in the thickness of the blood resulting in delayed blood clotting.
Infarction of the cerebral hemisphere of the brain.
Stimulants and ill-effects of the use of these stimulants
Stimulants are the drugs that directly impairs or affects the central and peripheral nervous system of the human body. They cause the body to sty longer under adverse conditions such as excess heat, long duration sports as the increase the rate of metabolism in the human body and also the heart beat so that the oxygen intake by the blood can be increased. In one way, the increase the rate of reactions and functions of every organ of the human body as they directly affect the central nervous system. These substances are synonymous to the adrenalin found in our body whose purpose is to produce increased alertness, greater concentration etc. The main types of stimulants used by the athletes are cocaine. Some of the side effects of the use of the stimulants are:
Lack of proper sleep or insomnia as the drugs directly affect the central nervous system which is the brain and the spinal cord.
Hallucinations or dream like state even in the day. In this, the person has wrong impression about the existence of an object that is not there at that moment.
Loss of appetite.
Nervousness, restlessness, tension and anxiety.
Increase in the body temperature. For example, when an athlete under the influence of these drugs perform for a longer duration n the excess heat, the body is not able to cool down that may result in the death of the person.
Disorders and the malfunction of the SA and AV nodes of the heart.
These are usually the most talked about drugs in the media. They perform the similar function of the analgesics but at a much more broader scale. The are quicker and much more effective than the analgesics in vanishing the pain while leaving the injury as it is. It gives a wrong impression to the athlete that he has been cred while the injury still prevails and enhances the injury. After the influence of the narcotics is over, the situation may become more serious and uncontrollable. Some of the side effects of the use of these narcotics are:
Dizziness and the spinning of the head.
Lack of proper sleep or insomnia.
The athlete may get addicted to the drug as it has a very strong influence.
Loss of appetite.
reduced heart beat rate.
The athlete may lose its self control and balance. He is generally unable to walk properly if he continued with higher doses of narcotics.
Side effects of the various methods used for doping in sports that are prohibited
There are various methods that are used in place of banned drugs and substances that increase the performance of the athletes. They perform the same function as performed by the drugs mentioned above. The drugs used in doping have the same impacts as these methods. Both are harmful for the athletes as they improve their performance in the short run while impairing their capacities and deteriorating their health.
Side impacts of the enhancement of oxygen transfer capacity
This technique is used in place of the erythropoetin for the enhancement in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood by the athletes. This helps in the body building and improves stamina in sports such as marathons. This is generally referred to as the blood doping. Side effects of the blood doping are:
Vasoconstriction in which the capillaries constrict and it again traps the heat within the body. The less amount of blood is supplies to various parts of the body.
Clotting delay even in the minor injuries.
Malfunction of the kidneys.
Increase in the blood thickness and density.
The athlete may face the danger of a heart and cardiac stroke including brain arrest.
Manipulation techniques used by the athletes
There are many athletes who use these techniques to mask the effects of the drugs used by them. Moreover, the tests conducted by the lab fail to recognize the concerned levels of the drugs if the body is physically manipulated with the help of these. One such method used by the athletes is catherization in which a small catherer is inserted in various parts of the body to numb that area and avoid it detection in the tests. Urinary catherization may lead to the infections of the bladder or cystitis.
Gene doping and its side impacts
Gene doping is a procedure in which a healthy gene is inserted in the body of a person to replace an damaged existing gene or to insert a new gene in the place of an absent gene. The WADA declared that there is a great scope for the athletes in gene doping. They may use the gene to improve the performance of the existing health genes though it could have been used in a positive and better way. Foe example, the gene screening of the athlete may lead the coach to determine the exercises and supplements that will be best suited to the athlete. For example, the gene producing IGF-I can be inserted into the athletes so that the muscle and skeletal structures can be improved. This shall be useful for those athletes that have got some injuries as it can heal them fast and replace the damaged and torn tissues and tendons faster. Side effects of gene doping in athletes are:
Chronic liver disease.
Anaemia due to autoimmune responses.
If the gene is not transferred to the athletes under safety conditions, it may lead to the attacks of the virulent viruses in the body.
Higher risks of heart attack due to the increased viscosity of the blood if the EPO gene is transferred to the athletes.
Introduction of IGF- may give rise to the development of the tumors.
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