Syllabus and Tut. Sheet of Intelligent Instrumentation (compulsory) For 8th Sem BE(ECE) BIT Mesra

This resource is about the syllabus of Intelligent Instrumentation a compulsory paper of 8th Semester BIT Mesra ,ECE Branch with a subject code of EC8101 along with the tutorial sheet.The whole syllabus has been broken down into 8 modules and questions are asked from each module most of the Time. But the candidate has to attempt 6 out of 8 questions in the final exam.

The syllabus is divided into eight modules
Module – 1:
Review of Transducers, Principles of operations and its classification, Characteristics, Technological trends in making transducers, Silicon sensors for the measurement of pressure, Level, Flow and Temperature, Bio-sensors ,types and its Application .

Text Books:

1. "Computer-Based Industrial Control", by Krishna Kant, PHI.
2. "Process Control Instrumentation Technology", by Curtis D Johnson, Pearson Ed.
3. "Sensors and Transducers", 2/e by D.Patranabis


Radiation Sensors, X -ray and Nuclear radiation sensors, Fiber optic sensors for Temperature, Liquid level, Fluid- flow measurement, Electro-analytical sensors: Electrochemical cell, Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE), Smart sensors.

Text Books:

1. "Process Control Instrumentation Technology", by Curtis D Johnson, Pearson Ed.
2. "Sensors and Transducers", 2/e by D. Patranabis

Module – 3:

Introduction about Instrumentation systems, Types of Instrumentation systems, Data acquisition system and its uses in intelligent Instrumentation system, Detailed study of each block involved in making of DAS, Signal Conditioners: as DA, IA, Signal Converters (ADC & DAC), Sample and hold, Designing of Pressure, Temperature measuring instrumentation system using DAS, Data logger.

Text Books:

1. "Process Control Instrumentation Technology" 6/e, by Curtis D Johnson, Pearson Ed.
2. "Electrical and Electronics Measurement and Instrumentation" by A. K. Swahney.
3. "Electronics instrumentation" by H. S. Kalsi [TMH]

Module – 4:

Introduction about Automation system, Concepts of Control Schemes, Types of Controllers, Components involved in implementation of Automation system i.e., DAS, DOS, Converter ( I to P ) and Actuators: Pneumatic cylinder, Relay, Solenoid (Final Control Element), Computer Supervisory Control System (SCADA), Direct Digital Control's Structure and Software.

Text Books:

1. "Computer-Based Industrial Control", by Krishna Kant, PHI.
2. "Process Control Instrumentation Technology", by Curtis D Johnson, Pearson Ed.

Module – 5:

Introduction of Programmable logic controller, Principles of operation, Architecture of Programmable controllers, Programming the Programmable controller.

Text Books:

1. "Computer-Based Industrial Control", by Krishna Kant, PHI.
2. "Process Control Instrumentation Technology", by Curtis D Johnson, Pearson Ed.

Module – 6:

Introduction to Distributed Digital Control, Functional requirements of process control system, System architecture, Distributed Control systems, Configuration, Some popular Distributed Control Systems, Industrial control applications like cement plant, thermal power plant.

Text Books:

1. "Computer-Based Industrial Control", by Krishna Kant, PHI.
2. "Process Control Instrumentation Technology", by Curtis D Johnson, Pearson Ed.

Module –7:

Introduction to Intelligent Controllers, Model based controllers, Predictive control, Artificial Intelligent Based Systems, Experts Controller, Fuzzy Logic System and Controller, Artificial Neural Networks, Neuro-Fuzzy Controller system.

Text Books:

1. "Computer-Based Industrial Control", by Krishna Kant, PHI.
2. "Instrumentation ", by Kirk and Rimboi.



Module –1:

1. Discuss dump vs. intelligent instrumentation.

2. What are various elements of an intelligent instrument?

3. What are the differences between a sensor and a transducer?

4. Describe various types of intelligent sensors in brief.

5. What are bio-sensors? Discuss various types of bio-sensors.

6. What are the advantages of using silicon sensors? Discuss various types of silicon sensors.

7. Discuss the future trend in sensor technology.

8. Explain the function of a basic differential amplifier with the help of proper diagram.

9. In a differential amplifier if the values of the feedback resister = 100K, the resistance to the pins 2 & 3 are 1K each then find the output voltage V0 when E1=10 mV for the following cases (i) E2=10mV, (ii) E2=0mV & (iii) E2= -20mV.

10. Discuss common mode configuration of differential amplifier. How one can ensure zero output voltage for this particular configuration?

11. What are the disadvantages of a basic differential amplifier?

12. How basic differential amplifier circuit can be improved upon to make a provision for gain adjustment along with the increase in input impedance?

13. (a) Explain the circuit of a buffered differential input to differential output amplifier with adjustable gain. (b) If input voltages E1=10mV, E2=55mV, the feedback resistance 9K each, adjustable resistance R=2K, find the o/p voltage of a buffered differential input to differential output amplifier with adjustable gain.

14. Explain the advantages of an instrumentation amplifier.

15. What is the main advantage of a differential amplifier over an inverting amplifier with respect to input noise signal voltage?

16. Explain how an instrumentation amplifier can be used to sense and measure the voltage?

17. Explain how an instrumentation amplifier can be used as a differential voltage to current converter?

18. Discuss the basic bridge amplifier circuit. And its operation? What is the zeroing procedure in the bridge amplifier circuit?

19. How would to increase the versatility of the bridge amplifier when you require to connect one terminal of the transducer to the ground.


1. What is photoelectric effect? How is it utilized in photosensitive devices for quantitative study of radiation? How do the intensity of radiation and its range affect photo sensors?

2. What are quantum efficiency and quantum yield? How are they related?

3. What are the commonly used photo resistive materials? Discuss their special ranges and usable resistance ratio ranges. How are such cells characterized?

4. Why is noise so important in photoconductors? What are the different sources of noise and how are they quantified? Is NEP defined taking all such noise into consideration?

5. What is detectivity? How is it related to NEP?

6. In what different methods can a p-n junction be used for radiation detection? Explain their operations with diagrams.

7. Can you assign two good reasons why selenium photovoltaic cells are still extensively used? What are the other materials used for making such cells?

8. What are the advantages of using a fiber optic transducer?

9. Compare photoconductive, photovoltaic, and photo emissive-type photo detectors.

10. Name few sensors for the measurement of fluid.

11. Give an example of obstruction flow sensor with diagram.

12. How Pitot- tube can be used for the measurement of flow.

13. Describe magnetic flow meter with suitable diagram.

14. Describe the conveyor flow concept with diagram.

15. What are smart sensors? Explain its utility from future application point of view.

16. How are photocells used for position sensing purposes? Describe a three-layer type position sensing photocell and explain its operation.

17. Can A Schottky barrier structure be used for position sensing? Describe such a cell and show how differential current output proportional to position is obtained from it.

18. What is an Opto-coupler? Where is it used? Describe different types of opto-couplers with their operating principles and characteristics.

19. What are the commonly known ionizing radiations and what are the detectors used for their measurement?

20. Compare the performances of organic and inorganic scintillators. How does a scintillator act in radiation energy detection? On what factors does the output of a scintillator depend?

21. Describe an optical fiber sensor for temperature measurement. Comment on its range, accuracy, and resolution.

22. How is optical fiber used for stress sensing? Describe a micro bend sensor and discuss its operation.

Module – 3:

1. With satiable block diagram explain data acquisition system.

2. Discuss the objectives of a data acquisition system.

3. Give an example of a microprocessor based data acquisition system with block diagram.

4. Explain the sample and hold circuit in detail with the appropriate figures.

5. What is the need of a signal conditioner in Data acquisition system?

6. Name few signal conditioner used in most of the data acquisition system.

7. What is an Analogue multiplexer?

8. Discuss the electrochemical switches and its disadvantages.

9. Name a few solid-state switches. Compare them with the electro mechanical switches.

10. Discuss complementary MOS switch in detail.

11. What is a data logger? How it is different from DDC?

12. What are the basic elements of data logger? Discuss with the help of appropriate diagram?

13. Explain a scheme of temperature acquisition system using a microprocessor.

14. Mention the advantage of digital processing over analogue processing.

15. A sensor provides temperature data as 360 ?V/?C. Develop a comparator circuit that goes high when temperature reaches 350?C.

16. A 4-bit DAC must have an 8.00 –V output when all inputs are high. Find the required reference.

17. An 8-bit ADC with 10.0-V reference has an input of 3.797 V. Find the digital output word. What range of input voltages would produce this same output? Suppose the output of ADC is 10110111. What is the input voltage?

18. An ADC will encode pressure data. The input signal is 666.6 mV/psi. (a) If a resolution of 0.5 psi is required, find the number of bits necessary for ADC. The reference is 10V.

19. A bipolar ADC has 12 bits and a 10.00-V reference. What output is produced by inputs-4.3V, -0.66V, +2.4V, and +4.8V? What is the input voltage if output is B3A Hex?

20. A DAS has 8 input channels to be sampled continuously and sequentially. The multiplexer can select and settle on a channel in 3.1?s, the ADC converts in 33?s, and the computer processes a single channel of data in 450 ?s. What is the minimum time between samples of a particular channel?

21. A sensor linearly changes resistance from 2.35 to 3.57 K? over a range of some measured variable. The measurement must have resolution of at least 1.25? and be interfaced to a computer. Design the signal conditioning circuit and specify the characteristic of ADC required.

Module – 4:

1. What factors are to be considered in determining what variables to measure for the control for a chemical process?

2. While you are taking a morning shower, what are your control objective, your measurements, and the manipulated variables at your disposal?

3. What are the state variables, and what are the state equations? Why they are used for?

4. How many state variables do you need to describe a system that is composed of M phases and N components?

5. When is a system at steady state? What is the main reason for the presence of dead time in a process? Do you know of any systems that do not possess dead time? How would you find the dead time of a system? Could you have dead time between the overhead vapour and the distillate product? If yes, why?

6. Draw a process control block diagram and explain its elements. Why do we need mathematical modeling for process control?

7. Discuss the use of computer supervisory control with the help of a reaction process example.

8. Explain the flow diagram of set point changes in a supervisory control system.

9. What do you mean by a computer supervisory control? Where it is used?

10. Discuss the structure of a direct digital control.

11. What is the DDC software?

12. Discuss the programming algorithm of a three-mode controller.

13. Discuss the position algorithm used in DDC software.

14. How the algorithm can be modified for implementation on a microprocessor?

15. Discuss the velocity algorithm for DDC software.

16. What is the measurement problems associated with a velocity algorithm? Explain each in detail.

17. How one can overcome the major problems associated in a velocity algorithm?

18. Explain the program flow chart for a velocity algorithm.

19. Explain position versus velocity algorithm for DDC software.

Module – 5:

1. Explain the flow chart of a PID control.

2. What is a programmable logic controller? Explain with block Diagram.

3. Discuss the advantages of PLC over electromechanical relays.

4. Discuss the overall PLC system and explain the basic principle of operation.

5. Discuss the architecture of a PLC and explain the various tasks performed by its operating system.

6. State the reason why one should use PLC instead of computer in controlling a particular process.

7. Discuss the various PLC programming format's limitations one should observe when programming a PLC ladder diagram.

8. Explain scan cycle of a PLC.

9. Assuming X1, X2 & X3 to be three limit switches with normally open contact and C1, C2 & C3 be the limit switches with the normally closed contact. Form at least three-ladder diagram to energize a coil using OR-AND circuit. How can you provide interfacing operations?

10. With the help of switch able ladder diagram explain how a PLC can be utilized.

11. Compare the relay logic with PLC logic for simple one contact one-coil circuit showing the connection diagram.

12. Compare the relay logic with PLC logic for a start stop seal circuit.

13. Compare the relay logic with PLC logic for an alarm system.

14. Discuss various programmable languages in brief used in a PLC.

15. Draw the Ladder Diagram for the following Boolean function (i) AB'C +ABC'+BD (ii) (A'+B'+C) (A+D)

16. Draw a ladder Diagram for Equivalence Detector.

17. Write down the PLC program to automate a Coffee making machine.

18. Write down the PLC program for starrier of two different liquids in a chemical process.

19. Write down the PLC program to automate a packaging industry.

20. Write down the PLC program for Traffic Light Controller.

21. Write down the PLC program for start. stop and running of a motor

22. Discuss in detail the various application area of PLC.

Module – 6:

1. Carry out a comparative study of distributed digital control system.

2. Write down advantages and disadvantages of distributed digital control system over centralized control system.

3. What are the basic functional requirements of a distributed process control system?

4. Write down the characteristics of distributed process control system architecture.

5. Give an example of distributed computer control system with block diagram.

6. How a distributed control system is configured?

7. Describe Lees and Northup Max-I distributed control system with suitable block diagram.

8. Describes Bailey Micro-Z distributed control system with block diagram.

9. Describe a cement plant with various activities and parameters.

10. What are the objectives of automation system for cement plant?

11. Prepare a strategy for automation of of cement plant.

12. Prepare a plan for using distributed control system for cement plant.

13. Give automation strategy of a thermal power plant with block diagram.

14. How distributed control system can be used in a power plant.

15. Describe automatic boiler control with block diagram.

16. Describe turbine automatic start – up system.

17. Give thermal stress calculation flow diagram.

18. Describe adaptive control system for variable pressure control power plants.

Module –7:

1. Describe model-based controller with suitable block diagram.

2. Give a block diagram of model identification adaptive (self tuning) controller. What are
the methods that can be used for parameter estimation?

3. Write down the methods for optimization of controller.

4. Give block diagram of optimal controller using Kalman filter.

5. What is predictive control system? Give its block diagram.

6. What is the difference in working of conventional EDP systems and Artificial Intelligent

System? Show diagrammatically.

7. Draw a block diagram of general expert system.

8. Write down the characteristics of expert system.

9. What are the steps involved in building of an expert system.

10. Describe expert controller with block diagram.

11. Explain fuzzy logic system with suitable example.

12. What is fuzzification? Describe with example.

13. What are the methods used for defuzzification?

14. Describe fuzzy controller using block diagram.

15. What is artificial neural network? Give mathematical model of a biological neuron.

16. How an Artificial Neural Network can be classified? Describe each method.

17. Describe learning rules developed for ANNs.

18. Explain back-propagation-learning algorithm with suitable diagram.

19. Describe neuro-fuzzy control system with block diagram.

20. Describe adaptive controller using neural network with suitable diagram.

Note: This Tutorial Sheet is just the reflection of the original tutorial sheet. Part of the tutorial sheet is likely to be changed in every semester. So must confirm the original tutorial sheet at the start of the semester.

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