History of artificial intelligence-
The first calculating machine was invented by Herman Hollerth in 1860 which performs simple addition, subtraction, multiplication and division task. And proceeding this Electronic numeric integrator and computer (ENIAC) was designed which caused a major revolution for the development for first generation. And in 1959 transistor were formed by Bell laboratories. And this transistor is very much useful for converting the sound into electronic signal. This was considered as one of the major revolution in the second generation. And in the later years, LED, LCD, LSI and VLSI design was developed which paved a way for development of artificial intelligence.
The first development in the artificial intelligence is the fuzzy logic mainly developed for mathematical operations, which works more than a Boolean logic. After the successful evolution of fuzzy logic there comes the existence of expert system, neural network etc which are considered to be the branches of AI.
Branches of Artificial Intelligence AI-
On a broad classification there are four main branches of AI-
This is considered as one the most important branch of AI. An expert system is a process in which the system performs a special task in an intelligent way more than a human can perform especially by reasoning methodology. Human expert decision, are converted into computer rules and programs and they will provide solution to a problem. The best example of the expert system is diagnosing human diseases and proving prescription. The system is well designed by getting the input from the expert doctors and it is programmed and built in the system. After several training and testing, the system will start behaving like expert and will provide solution by reasoning methodology.
There are two main parts of expert system are Inference Engine and knowledge base.
The second important branch of AI is neural network. It is the part artificial intelligence which will behave more like human neurons for receiving and transmitting signals. And like human brain, it consists of many neurons with nods transmitting signals from end to other end . Based on the strength of connections, stimulus, speed, accuracy a particular pattern is selected. This neural network is a multiprocessor system which has set of neurons to process a particular task. Each neuron carries some weight and based on some activation function they work. Until the output is perfect, the weight is keep on changing. Once the desired result is attained then the weight remains stagnant. Based on the problem specification there are single layer neuron and multi-layer neuron helps to achieve the task.
The speech or voice recognition therapy is the process of converting the speech into electronic signals. The basic and the ancient robot mechanism is designed by locating the objects in the image. This can be done by voice recognition therapy. Once the name of the object is pronounced, the voice signals are converted into digital signals and in turn they are converted into text to locate the same object in the picture. The speech patterns with different voice are stored in the memory and a comparator is used to analyze the voice pattern to convert into text pattern. And also this speech recognition process is used to address the incoming call in call center job and also for recognizing the voice in central bureau of crime, this speech recognition is very much used.
Machine vision is the ability of the machine to locate/see an object. This machine is used in wide range of application like sensors, cameras in supermarket stores, finger print or signature recognition, barcode recognition, x-ray or scan images recognition etc. This machine has cameras attached to it to capture the object and then it will compare the image with the pattern that is stored in the memory. Once the pattern is matched then the object is recognized.
Applications where Artificial intelligence in implemented-
There are lot of application which are up and running currently with AI-
Advantages of AI-
Disadvantages of AI-
Future mile stone in AI-