Evolution of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer science or the process of making the computer to understand the human language through a well-designed programs. Computers are very fast in speed with huge memory capabilities, by using these advantages a system(AI) is designed which can understand to human language which can react accordingly. The whole process can be achieved by lot of training, testing and designing involved in making the system perfect, to behave like humans.

History of artificial intelligence-

The first calculating machine was invented by Herman Hollerth in 1860 which performs simple addition, subtraction, multiplication and division task. And proceeding this Electronic numeric integrator and computer (ENIAC) was designed which caused a major revolution for the development for first generation. And in 1959 transistor were formed by Bell laboratories. And this transistor is very much useful for converting the sound into electronic signal. This was considered as one of the major revolution in the second generation. And in the later years, LED, LCD, LSI and VLSI design was developed which paved a way for development of artificial intelligence.
The first development in the artificial intelligence is the fuzzy logic mainly developed for mathematical operations, which works more than a Boolean logic. After the successful evolution of fuzzy logic there comes the existence of expert system, neural network etc which are considered to be the branches of AI.

Branches of Artificial Intelligence AI-

On a broad classification there are four main branches of AI-

  • Neural network

  • Expert system

  • Speech recognition

  • Machine Vision

  • Expert system-

    This is considered as one the most important branch of AI. An expert system is a process in which the system performs a special task in an intelligent way more than a human can perform especially by reasoning methodology. Human expert decision, are converted into computer rules and programs and they will provide solution to a problem. The best example of the expert system is diagnosing human diseases and proving prescription. The system is well designed by getting the input from the expert doctors and it is programmed and built in the system. After several training and testing, the system will start behaving like expert and will provide solution by reasoning methodology.
    There are two main parts of expert system are Inference Engine and knowledge base.

  • Knowledge base simply follows the reasoning methodology like if and then conditions say example- If cold=yes and temperature= high then symptom=fever. These formulations are already stored by getting input from the expert system.

  • Inference Engine - If a certain inputs are given, then the expert system predicts the things well in advance. The best expert system inference engine is the weather forecasting system, which provides the weather forecast and intimates the people about the Tsunami, earth quake, flood and other natural disaster. This inference engine uses fuzzy logic to produce the result by reasoning methodology.

  • Neural Network

    The second important branch of AI is neural network. It is the part artificial intelligence which will behave more like human neurons for receiving and transmitting signals. And like human brain, it consists of many neurons with nods transmitting signals from end to other end . Based on the strength of connections, stimulus, speed, accuracy a particular pattern is selected. This neural network is a multiprocessor system which has set of neurons to process a particular task. Each neuron carries some weight and based on some activation function they work. Until the output is perfect, the weight is keep on changing. Once the desired result is attained then the weight remains stagnant. Based on the problem specification there are single layer neuron and multi-layer neuron helps to achieve the task.

    Speech recognition

    The speech or voice recognition therapy is the process of converting the speech into electronic signals. The basic and the ancient robot mechanism is designed by locating the objects in the image. This can be done by voice recognition therapy. Once the name of the object is pronounced, the voice signals are converted into digital signals and in turn they are converted into text to locate the same object in the picture. The speech patterns with different voice are stored in the memory and a comparator is used to analyze the voice pattern to convert into text pattern. And also this speech recognition process is used to address the incoming call in call center job and also for recognizing the voice in central bureau of crime, this speech recognition is very much used.

    Machine Vision-

    Machine vision is the ability of the machine to locate/see an object. This machine is used in wide range of application like sensors, cameras in supermarket stores, finger print or signature recognition, barcode recognition, x-ray or scan images recognition etc. This machine has cameras attached to it to capture the object and then it will compare the image with the pattern that is stored in the memory. Once the pattern is matched then the object is recognized.

    Applications where Artificial intelligence in implemented-

    There are lot of application which are up and running currently with AI-

  • Optical Radar system - This is developed by a Israel students during their course, this optical radar system is designed specifically for blind people to help them with the obstacle before them. This is designed with 2 cameras and this 2 cameras will capture the object in front of them to calculate the distance between the object and the person holding the sensor system. If the distance is very small then the system will raise alarm to give the blind people a caution that an object is in front of them. The whole design works on artificial intelligence way, by training the system and identifying the objects.

  • Robotics - A program will be built in machines which can perform several activities like walking, talking, logical reasoning, giving expert answers etc. And this also used in industrial purpose to reduce the labor work considerably.

  • Computer games - A lot of computer games like chess, cricket, spin ball etc. are well designed so that they can play equally like human and they make very perfect decisions that human.

  • Mobile Learning - One of the major improvements in the current era is the existence of the mobile. And now incorporating 2G and 3G made a revolution in the mobile technology. Providing route maps, communication, touch screen, finger print recognition, image recognition is some of the mobile technology includes the artificial intelligence feature.

  • Advantages of AI-

  • It helps to produce perfect result

  • The speed and accuracy and very important factors of the AI

  • It is considered to be the friendly system which gets input in human understandable format

  • The turnaround time for which it produces the result will be very quick

  • Provides very simple solution to a complex problem.

  • Disadvantages of AI-

  • We should train the system to produce accurate result.

  • The process is very much cost oriented.

  • For some tedious work AI is considered as a time consuming process which involves training of the system

  • Acquiring the knowledge from the expert, documenting it and then converting into program code is quite a big process which needs high accuracy and also time consuming process

  • Future mile stone in AI-

  • Talk- Talk search engine- Nowadays the search engine uses keyword based search or semantic based search but it is estimated that in 2020, search engine will produce the result based on the voice recognition. So if the user calls a particular number, based on the voice it will be converted into text and the search result will be produced. This will be considered as one of the major milestone in the field of AI.

  • 24 hours Experts- If a patients is suffering from illness, it will not be necessary for a doctor to attend immediately. If an expert system is there then it can give treatment to a patients based on the symptoms and causes. This can be used on the urgent medical basis.

  • Robotics- In the field of robotics, a vast improvement can be expected so that it can reduce the labor work and also it can work continuously for 24 hours in any industry and also it can work in intelligent way.

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