Opportunities and trends in the Civil Engineering field


There are various branches of Engineering such Mechanical, Electrical, Computer, Chemical out of which is Civil is oldest and basic branch of Engineering. There are tremendous job opportunities in the Civil field. So let’s discussion various trends and aspects of Civil Engineering.

Introduction :


Civil Engineering is basic and oldest branch of Engineering. It deals with design along with construction and also maintenance of various physical and naturally built construction buildings. The majorly it includes strucutres such as Bridges on road as well as sea, Roads it includes undergroup road structure as well, Canals for connecting rivers, Dams for creating water storage, and also buildings also. In every level of society such as public sector or private sector even in Local Corporation also Civil Engineering has great influence and it is recognized with great value. If we check its association, it is having several association. It involves associations such as American Society of Civil Engineers. It also includes Canadian Society for Civil Engineering. The well recognized Earthquake Engineering Research Institute is also associated with Civil Engineering.

Brief History:


Civil Engineering is started even in the initial growing period of human being. It is started in the form of various forms when human being was looking for shelter. But actual Civil Engineering concept was come into picture after long time. As per record it is found that basic Civil Engineering concept was come alive in between 4000 and 2000 BC in Egypt. There is also incident found in the year 1818, that is very first Civil Engineering institute was formed in London. If you want to know, who was the first president of that institute? The answer is Thomas Telford.

Sub Branches of Civil Engineering:


Sub branches of Civil Engineering mainly consist of –
• Construction engineering
• Earthquake engineering
• Environmental engineering
• Geotechnical engineering
• Water resources engineering
• Materials engineering
• Structural engineering
• Surveying
• Transportation engineering
• Municipal or urban engineering

Factors influencing Demand of Civil Engineers


Following are the various factors which have direct or indirect effect on demand for Civil Engineers.

Factors that Increase Demand :


Following are the factors which increase the demand for civil engineers-
• Increase in basic research
• Increase in mission research
• Economic growth
• Increase in higher education enrolments (Causing an increased demand of faculty)

Factors that Decrease Demand :


Below are the few factors which decrease the demand for civil engineers-
• Decrease in basic or mission research
• Economic recession

Factors that shift demand between disciplines :


The following factors may shift the demand between disciplines. Let's have look on it -
• Technological changes and challenges to research in civil fields
• Automation of engineering functions by means of computer aided design and manufacturing technologies.

Factors influencing supply :


Factors which influences the supply is as follows -
• Education quality at engineering course as well at higher secondary school
• Permanent and temporary immigration of engineers
• No. of engineers completed course in each year

Civil Engineering field with greater demand :


As population increases, there is increase in demand for building structures and hence the increase in demand for Civil engineers. Also economic stability, healthy lifestyle fetched the demand for advanced and structures with better amenities. This ultimately requires a good city planning. This is a field where we can see more opportunities for civil engineers -
1) Water Engineering - Water supply for various structures is a basic need. The finding water resources, locating it, building structures for water transportation comes under this category.
2) Waste Management - The waste material generated have to be collected daily basis and it need to be disposed at proper location. Handling different kind of waste such as e-waste, decomposable and non-decomposable waste is having major advances in this sector
3) Energy source management - Energy sources such as electricity has greater importance as it is vital part of city planning. Demand and supply chain has to be in balanced state which ultimately gives out good growth.
4) Infrastructure development - Roads, plants, Foot Bridge, fly over - these infrastructure components need to be developed with proper precaution as it has direct influence on growth of city and ultimately on associated fields as well.

All the above factors are under the influence of climatic changes and environmental sustainability and the disasters.

Challenges:


The following challenges will for Civil Engineering field:
1. Globalization and Interdependence:
It will include world economy, sustainable development and global vulnerability etc.
2. Environmental and Resource Scarcities:
Energy and materials, hazards, ecology and spatial imbalances may be part of these scarcities.
3. Structural Changes:
Population, urbanization, social structure, technological breakthroughs, bioengineering etc will involve in structural changes.
4. Institutional Shifts:
This will mainly include the economics, politics, inequalities, workforce, health and education etc.
5. Values Transformation:
It is main challenge which will have greater influence and it will include behavioral shifts, cultural changes, social activism etc.


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