We sometimes harm ourselves while cutting vegetables, bruise our knees, twist our ankle, or fall during play. Such incidents cause minor injuries. But when a vehicle hits someone or when someone falls from a height or come in contact with live wire and gets severe electric shock, the injuries caused are serious. One’s presence of mind plays an important role during such accidents. Victims of accidents need proper medical assistance. The treatment that is given before any type of medical assistance reaches is called “first aid”. Children are not expected to give first aid, but they should atleast have knowledge about it.
Some people may feel giddy due to extreme exertion, weakness of being out in the hot sun for a long period.
First aid of giddiness
• The person is made to sit down or if possible to lie down. The person is provided water with sugar or glucose. If the spell of giddiness repeats again and again. The person needs medical treatment and should be taken to a doctor.
Staying out in the hot sun for a long time can cause giddiness, headache, vomiting and even unconsciousness. These harmful effects are known as sunstroke. More cases of sunstroke occur during summer season and in such places where the daytime temperatures exceed 43° C.
How to prevent sunstroke:
• Drink plenty of water. Water regulates the temperature within body.
• Do not work unnecessarily in the hot sun for long periods of time.
• Youths feel themselves shame to wear turban in the hot sun. But someone has rightly said that “Prevention is better than cure”.
• If it is necessary to go out in the sun, always wear a turban, cap, or scarf. The thing should be white or light in colour, because white colour absorbs very less heat as compared to dark colour. Cover the back of the neck also.
• A person who had sunstroke is made to sit in a cool, shady place.
• A cold compress is applied to the head.
• He/she should be provided Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) to drink.
Accidents caused by electricity
Contact with live electric wires, bad insulator or with damaged electrical gadgets can cause electric shock. A mild shock can make a person unconscious; a severe shock can even cause death if come in contact with Direct Current (DC).
Precautions against electric shock
• If a person gets stuck to a live wire or any electrical gadget on touching it, he/she should be pulled away using a dry wooden object as soon as possible. Before pulling, check that the wooden object is not wet. Wood is a bad conductor of electricity. Hence, they do not conduct electricity.
• Electrical appliances should be handled only under adult supervision. Special care should be taken during rainy season; there is more danger from electric poles and snapped wires. It is good to stay away from them.
• If any accident related to electricity happen in home, any one should immediately switch off the main supply.
First aid when a person gets electric shock
After getting severe electric shock, the victim should be taken to a nearest hospital. Meanwhile, he/she should be provided “Artificial breathing”. This type of breathing involves mouth to mouth transfer of oxygen from one person to other person in order to restore respiration.
Cases of snakebite often occur in fields or forests. If the snake is non-poisonous, there is not much problem. But immediate action and treatment is necessary if the snake is poisonous. However, untrained person cannot judge whether the snake is poisonous or not. The victim should not be taken to any quack, because the quack cannot treat the victim in any case. He/she may take advantage of “dry bite”. The bite in which snake do bite but do not eject poison is called dry bite.
When a snake bites, following first aid is required
The victim should be immediately taken to any nearest hospital for an injection of antivenin. Meanwhile we have to follow below guidelines:
• The victim should not be allowed to sleep. Sleep increases the flow of poison in the body. It is only possible by slapping the person again and again.
• Teeth marks of snake can be easily visible at the site of bite. The part becomes bluish and swollen.
• A tourniquet is strongly tied above the site.
• A cut is made around the site using new razor blade so that blood flows out. This causes the poison flow out from the body.
Remember, the first aid done on time can be life saving.
First aid methods are very useful for quick relief and it is essential that people should have the knowledge of these to help and save their fellow beings.
Now a days first aid methods are taught to the students in the school. They can in turn teach it to their parents and relatives so that more people can learn these life saving techniques.