Modernization of Indian agriculture
This article deals with the modernization of agriculture of India. Primary occupation of most of the villagers in India is farming. Economy of this nation depends on the agricultural productivity. Hence, it is very important to boost the agricultural production by modernizing it.
About 70% of population of India lives in villages. The core occupation of people lives in villages is agriculture (farming). Yet India is not self-sufficient in producing enough food. Every year hundreds of tons of food-grains are imported from foreign countries. Agriculture is of extreme importance for the progress of developing country like India.
Causes of backwardness of agriculture
Let us find out some causes of backwardness of agriculture.
Population is increasing tremendously in India. Due to this, more land is required for farming which is being brought under plough.
Presence of wide range of Himalayas allows monsoon winds long time in our country. But, due to the uncertainty and irregularity of monsoon, agriculture is affected.
Land holdings available for farming are very small and scattered. In such condition, modern machines and implements cannot be used.
Low rainfall regions require irrigation facility. But due to lack of the facility is another reason for backwardness of agriculture.
Due to unavailability of canal irrigation in the country, most of the farmers of different parts depend on rainy season. Hence, we can say that if the monsoon fails agriculture also fail. If monsoon does not come under correct time then agriculture cannot be modernized. The poverty and ignorance of farmers also makes it difficult to make development in the field of agriculture.
How to modernize the agriculture?
For the modernization of agriculture, scientific methods should be applied. Qualitative seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides should be made available to the Indian farmers. Central and state government has given top dominance to agriculture. Multipurpose projects are being built in all the states of India. These projects have made irrigation facilities approachable to the farmers. Where canal and drip irrigation is not possible, rainwater should be harvested at such places. Government has built a large industry at Sindri in Bihar for the manufacture of the chemical fertilizers. Some industries overcome the problem of manure.
Some farmers don't have enough knowledge about proper utilization of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Hence, farmers are required to educate through proper mass media like television, newspaper or radio. Agriculture should be established on a co-operative basis. Only hard working and regular persons should be made responsible for performing government policies. Modern science and technology is changing very fast. We should make the best use of it as per our capabilities.
Farmers should avoid growing same crop on same land again and again. Reusing the same land for same crop not only reduces fertility of land but also affects productivity of the crop. For example, a farmer use X land for growing rice crop in 2012. In the next years, i.e. 2013, 2014, 2015, suppose the farmer reuse the X land for growing the same crop then the productivity of the crop decreases. Instead he should utilize the X land for different crop. This will get good productivity.