Know about three new areas of modern research in medical science

Medical Science has been progressing by leaps and bounds, thus increasing the life expenctancy and improving quality of life. However, modern researches on stem cells, development of artificial organs like liver and advancement in robotic surgery are oepning new vistas of treatment. Read the article to know about these areas of research.

Since the nineteenth century, medical science has been progressing by leaps and bounds. Earlier, the diseases which were thought to be incurable can be cured very easily. Organs can be transplanted, which was unimaginable. New research is going on in all the branches of medical science. As a result, not only the life expectancy has increased, but also the quality of live has improved beyond imagination. Even then, research is progressing in various areas of medical science. In this article, we will discuss three new areas of research in medical sciences which have far-reaching consequences.

Significance of stem cell research

Stem cells are mother cells which can develop into any type of cell in the body. Stem cells can become cells of blood, heart, bones, skin, muscles, brain and other organs. When a stem cell divides, it can remain as a stem cell, or it can develop into any other type of cell. Stem cells are found in the early embryo, the foetus, amniotic fluid, the placenta, and umbilical cord blood. After birth, for the entire life, stem cells continue to reside in many parts of the body, including skin, hair, bone marrow and blood. In the growing body, stem cells are responsible for generating new tissues, and when growth is complete, stem cells are responsible for repair and regeneration of damaged and ageing tissues.

Stem cell science is an extremely fast moving field of research, with new breakthroughs being reported regularly. This field of research represents an exciting area in medicine, because of the stem cell's potential to regenerate. Research in this field is opening new vistas in the treatment of various diseases and for improvement of the quality of life.

Importance of development of artificial liver

The liver is an organ which is extremely vital for life. It stores energy in the form of sugar, and makes it available to the body in case of need. There are various types of liver diseases. Liver failure is a life-threatening condition. The world's first artificial liver (of the size of a small coin) has been grown from stem cells by British scientists. It was created from blood taken from babies' umbilical cords just a few minutes after birth. Within two years, the artificial liver can be used to test new drugs, reducing the number of animal experiments.

The scientists are realistically expecting that in fifteen years' time, entire livers could be grown in the laboratory and transplanted into human beings, saving many lives.

A revolutionary surgical procedure called robotic surgery

Robotic surgery is a new method of performing surgery using very small tools attached to a robotic arm. The surgeon controls the robotic arm with a computer. At the initial stage of the surgery, the surgeon makes small cuts to insert the instruments into the patient's body. A tube with a camera attached to the end of it (an endoscope) allows the surgeon to view enlarged three dimensional images of the area being operated on, as the surgery is going on. The robot replicates the surgeon's hand movements to perform the procedure, using tiny instruments. Robotic surgery has many advantages over conventional surgery like faster recovery, less pain and bleeding, less risk of infection, smaller scars and shorter hospital stay.

Robotic surgery is not necessary for all types of surgeries, but it has replaced open surgery in many fields like urology and gynaecology. In future, it will enhance the scope of tele-medicine and long-distance operatoons.

Concluding comments

Stem cell research, development of artificial liver and robotic surgery are three major areas where sustained research activities are going on all over the world. These three areas have opened new possibilities of new treatment and organ transplant. The scientists are predicting with conviction that the treatment of human beings will be drastically improved during the next twenty years or so, thanks to new developments in the aforestated three areas.

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