IntroductionThyroid gland is a butterfly shaed endocrine gland present in the neck region below larynx. As endocrine gland (ductless gland), it secrete two very important hormones in our body- Thyroxine and Calcitonin. The Thyroxine hormone secreted by this gland will control the entire cellular metabolism and growth of our body. The other hormone Calcitonin will control the calcium metabolism of our body.
Even though the secretions of this gland will control the functioning of our whole body but the amount of this hormone secreted daily will be equal to a small droplet of water. But if its secretion becomes less, it leads to a condition called Hypothyroidism and if its secretion becomes more it leads to a defective condition called Hyperthyroidism. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 20 Crores of World's population are suffering from the malfunctioning of this gland. Out of which, 96% of the people are suffering from hypothyroidism (less secretion of thyroid gland). In India 32% of the total population are suffering from Thyroid problem according to WHO. Thyroidism problem is more prevalent in females than males (60% of Thyroid patients) according to WHO.
Thyroid Gland (Courtesy:-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/)
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is the condition of the patient in which there is a decrease in the secretion of thyroxine hormone by the gland. To identify the defects through the symptoms is not an easy thing. A good medical practitioner through various diagnosis tests can identify this problem. After identifying the problem through medical tests, doctor prescribes proper medicines and suggest various life style changes required to keep the problem under control.
Symptoms seen in patients with Hypothyroidism
Reasons for Hypothyroidism
Diagnosis Tests for HypothyroidismT3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4 analysis tests of hormonal secretion will determine whether the disorder is hypothyroidism, Pre or secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism. With Antibody test it can be determined as auto immune disorder or not. For Tumor determination, Fine Needle Aspiration Cryptology (FNAC) biopsy test will be conducted.
Thyroid hormone has greater importance in pregnancy time of the mother. Thyroid hormone secreted from mother will influence the development of brain and nervous system. Thyroid tablets will be given to mother if thyroid hormone secretion is insufficient in mother. If thyroid secretion of the mother is more foetal growth in mother's womb is inhibited. So in such situation anti thyroid medicines will be used by doctors to reduce the thyroid secretion of the mother.
How to control Hypothyroidism?
HyperthyroidismHyperthyroidism is caused due to excessive secretion of thyroxine in an individual. The excessive secretion of this hormone may lead to bring any of the following symptoms in the individual.
Ways to overcome hyperthyroidism
Nice article about thyroid disease. In simple terms, thyroid hypofunction means slowing down of body functions while hyper means rapid body functions- heart rate, speed, mental state, bowel movement etc.
Profuse sweating of skin of the hands and feet is a sign of 'Hyperthyroidism' and not Hypothyroidism.
Irritability is also a feature of Hyperthyroidism and not hypothyroidism.
Thickened tongue, slow speech with a husky voice quality are also features of hypothyroidism. Commonly, at times of increased demand (puberty, pregnancy) people tend to become a little hypothyroid.
In a hyperthyroid person, the appetite is increased a lot because of high basal metabolic rate and they do not have depression. Decreased appetite and depression are features of hypothyroidism.
If a person believes in allopathic medicines, both hypo and hyperfunction of thyroid need medications under the supervision of a physician or an endocrinologist. At times, hyperfunction of thyroid would need radioactive iodine as part of treatment or surgery.