Learn safety measures and importance of first aid steps to be followed in emergencies


Accidents happen suddenly and cause injury. They happen when we are careless therefore we must be careful either at home or on the road. By being careful we can avoid or reduce the impact of most accidents. Here in this article, I will explain about first aids and safety measures to avoid accidents.

First aid:


A person who has met an accident needs immediate attention. The immediate help given to the injured person before taking him to the doctor is called first aid. It helps in:
  • Saving life
  • Relieve pain till we reach to a doctor.
  • Prevent the condition of the injured person from getting worse.


  • First aid for cuts & wounds:
    We must not ignore minor cuts and wounds as these are an easy way for the germs to enter our body. So we must not ignore them and should do the first aid. Following factors should be taken care of while doing first aid for cuts and wounds:
  • Wash your hands with soap and water before giving first aid to the injured person.
  • If the wound is small then clean, it with the piece of cotton dipped in antiseptic lotion like Dettol or savlon. Dry it and then apply some antiseptic cream or put a bandage over the wound.
  • To stop the bleeding in deep cuts, take some cotton or make a thick pad of the sterile gauge and press it over the wound. You can also press down on the cotton with the thumb and fingers to stop bleeding. Then, tie it tightly with the bandage.
  • Take the injured person to the hospital or doctor's clinic.
  • An anti-tetanus injection is required if the cut has been caused due to rusted iron or any other dirty object.


  • First aid for sprains:
    A sprain occurs when a part of our body gets twisted and swells up due to tissues around a joint get injured. Sprains can be very painful and need to be treated soon.
  • Apply ice cubes or an ice pack on the joint to reduce swelling occurred due to injury.
  • We should not move sprained area much as the swelling may increase.
  • Wrap a crepe bandage around the twisted portion to prevent unnecessary movement and to give support to the joint.


  • First aid for nose bleeding:
    It's very common in kids, and we take the following measure when it occurs:
  • Make the patient sit down on a chair, with the head held back.
  • Ask the patient to put a wet cloth over the nose. This will ensure that the bleeding doesn't occur again.
  • Put an ice pack over the nose. This will ensure that bleeding won't start again.
  • Ask the patient to breathe through the mouth for some time.
  • If the bleeding doesn't stop then, it's advisable to take the patient to the hospital or doctor's clinic.


  • First aid for fractures:
    When a bone in our body cracks or breaks, it is called a fracture. The fractured bone causes a lot of pain and the affected area swells up.
  • A fractured bone can't be treated on its own. The only first aid one can give is to ensure that the fractured part doesn't move.
  • Take a piece of cardboard or wood, or a pillow. Tie it around the injured part. This will act as a splint. It will help in preventing the movement of the broken bone. Take any piece of a cloth that is easily available, such as muffler, towel or a dupatta, wrap it around the splint and tie it around the neck if the injury is on shoulder or arm. This acts as a sling and supports the splint.
  • Take the patient to the doctor.


  • First aid for burns:
    Burns can be caused by boiling water, steam, hot objects, crackers etc. In case of a minor burn, the skin turns red and there is a painful tingling sensation in the affected area. First aid can be given only in case of minor burns. Major and severe burns can be treated by the doctor only.
  • Keep the burnt area under the cold running water for few minutes that will give relief to the burnt area. Then, apply an ice pack on the affected area.
  • Put one teaspoon of baking soda in a glass of water. Dip cotton wool in the solution and apply on the affected area. This would give relief from the burning sensation.
  • If burns are severe then take the person to a doctor immediately.


  • First aid for animal bites:
    The saliva of some animals like dogs, cats, horses, monkeys, camels and wolves contains germs. When these animals bite someone, they release this saliva into the skin of the victim which can cause a very dangerous disease called rabies. Hence, it is very important to treat animal bites immediately.
  • Wash the wound with the soap and water to remove saliva and ultimately the germs.
  • Apply an antiseptic on the wound to prevent infection.
  • Take the victim to the doctor. The doctor will give an anti-rabies injection in such case


  • First aid for snake bite:
    When a snake bites someone, it injects poison in victim's body. The poison enters the blood and spreads in the whole body and affects our nervous system and ultimately causing the death of a victim. The following measure should be taken in the case of a snake bite.
  • Don't move the victim. This is because movement will cause the poison to spread faster in the body.
  • Tie a piece of cloth or bandage just above the bite. This will slow down the movement of the infected blood towards the heart.
  • Take the victim to a doctor as soon as possible. Antivenom injections are essential to be given to the victim in such case.

  • Preventing poisoning :


    Things such as naphthalene balls, medicines, nail polish and detergents may contain harmful or poisonous chemicals which cause harm if consumed that's why it is said to keep them away especially from the reach of children. So, always follow these safety rules.
  • Keep all medicines far from the reach of children.
  • Throw away the medicines that have crossed the expiry date.
  • Don't leave naphthalene balls around if there are small children at home.
  • In the case of any kind of poisoning, try to make the victim vomit. Take the victim to the nearest doctor immediately.

    Safety from fire:


    The fire has an extremely important role in our life. But if it is not handled properly, fire can be very dangerous and may harm us and even can cause enormous casualties. To prevent fires, follow these safety rules.
  • Synthetic clothes catch fire easily, so wear only cotton clothes while working in the kitchen or burning crackers.
  • Never play with the matchsticks.
  • Don't keep kerosene, diesel, petrol or other such highly flammable substance in the kitchen as they catch fire easily.
  • Stay away from crackers.
  • If there is severe fire, raise an alarm and call for the help immediately. You may also call the nearest fire station immediately.
  • If someone's clothes catch fire, ask the person to roll on the ground. Cover him or her with a blanket or some other thick cloth. This will cut off the air supply and the fire would extinguish.

  • Put out fire:


    Fire spreads very fast. Hence, it is to be controlled quickly. We can control all kinds of fires either by reducing the temperature of the burning substance or by cutting off the air supply.
  • If paper or wood or cloth is on fire, it can be extinguished by throwing water or sand or mud.
  • If the fire is caused by petrol or kerosene throw sand or sand over it. This would cut off the air supply to the fire.
  • If the fire is caused due to an electric short circuit or petrol, it can be controlled by throwing mud or sand over it. Never put out such fire using water.
  • Fires can also be put out by using special devices called fire extinguishers. There are many types of fire extinguishers. Different fire extinguishers specific types of fires. If they are available then they should be used instead of water or sand or mud.

  • Important phone numbers:


    Accidents occur suddenly and don't warn anyone in advance. So, always keep with you the important telephone numbers such as those of the nearest doctor/hospital, police station/PCR, fire station and nearby chemist. In case of emergency, immediately call for the help.

    Conclusion:


    Accidents occur without warning us so we must know how to do the first aid to the victim in case of an injury otherwise the victim may get serious before taking him or her to the hospital. By being careful and knowing about the first aid we can reduce the impact of most of the accidents.

    Picture credit: wikepedia


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    Comments

    Author: DR.N.V. Srinivasa Rao16 Nov 2018 Member Level: Diamond   Points : 3

    A good article by the author giving most of the needed first aid processes for various accidents caused at home. A stitch in time saves nine. That is why proper first aid immediately after the accident is a very important requirement. Some people go for very odd methods of first aid which will add on to the problem.

    When there is a small fire it is advisable to remove the materials around which can add to the fire. If anybody got burn injuries, the person should be immediately exposed to a good breeze and people should not get crowded there. He should be wiped with a cold water wetted cloth and should be taken to the doctor. Based on the type of fire we should give him the required first aid.



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