Genome concept Each cell of the plants and animals contain the specific number of chromosome. Most of the species of living beings are sporophytic and contain diploid (2n) number of chromosomes and having two sets of chromosomes. Thereproductive cells of these living beings are haploid (n) and therefore having only one set of chromosome. The haploid number of chromosome of an organism is called its genome. In cytogenetics, genome means a single set of the chromosome, refers ordinarily to nuclear chromosomes and is denoted by (n). Therefore diploid organisms, genome represents the total genetic information present in them. The study of the structural and functional organization of the complete genome is referred to as genomic analysis. This is commonly termed as genomics. Initially, genomics consists of the development of the genome map. A genomic map may be defined as a detailed schematic description of the structural and functional organization of the complete genome of an organism.
The ultimate aim of genomics is to obtain the DNA sequence of the completed genome, which provides the most detailed molecular description i.e., the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome.
Human Genome Project(HGP) aspects
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Human Genome Project is an international research program or undertaking by many countries administered jointly by the National Institute of Health and Department of Energy (NIHDE) U.S.A. to acquire complete knowledge of the organization, structure, and function of the human genome. It is called International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium which is aimed at finding out all genes of all the human chromosomes, determining their function and hopefully understanding how they together form a complete organization. HGP was started in the mid of 1980s. The National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland has established the first office of the HGP in the year 1988. James Watson was the first director of this project. The Human Genome Project official began on October 1, 1990.
The human genome is big. It consists of approximately 3 X 109 bp of DNA. So far the longest region of the continuous completed sequence is no more than about 10 6 bp. Sequencing a big genome does not just happen. It has to be carefully planned. The human genome project has preceded in three stages, first the construction of detail maps of what I will call "landmarks". Next, the complete cloning of the genome in well-characterized clones which include all the landmarks and finally the sequencing and annotation. Of all these the mapping has taken the longest time, the sequencing will take surprisingly little time but the annotation of the sequence is still to happen and is likely to take much longer than anything else.
Goals of the Human Genome Project The Human genome project is an international research programme which is designed:
Salient features of Human Genome Some of the important observations of the human genome project are as follows:
Application and future challenges The application and future challenges are given below:
Hakimuddin Kuwakhedawala is based in India with over 15 years experience as a teacher. Teaching and writing are his passion. Most of the articles of Hakimuddin are related to education, exam, environmental problems, etc.
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