Introduction Coronavirus was first identified in 1937. This virus is most prevalent in hens, rats, dogs, cats, horses, pigs, cows, camels, bats, etc. causing respiratory problems in them. Some scientists in 1960 identified some species of Coranavirus are causing common cold and flu fevers in human beings. In the course of time, mutant varieties of Coronavirus have emerged which are causing dangerous diseases to human beings. Till now six varieties of human Coronavirus were discovered. They are 229 E- Alpha Coronavirus, OC 43, Beta Coronavirus, HKU 1 Beta Coronavirus, SARS Coronavirus, MERS- CoV. Novel Coronavirus (2019-n CoV) is the latest mutant variety of human Coronavirus. This is the present mutant virus wildly spreading from Wuhan city of China.
In Latin, Corona means 'Crown'. As the shape of the virus is in the form of a crown or hollow shape under the electron microscope, the virus got its name Coronavirus. The present virus belongs to the SARS Coronavirus variety (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus). World Health Organization (WHO) named this virus as Novel Coronavirus (2019-n CoV). Like other Coronavirus this virus also spread through the air from one individual to another.
Human Coronavirus shape (Courtesy:-wikipedia.org)
How Novel Coronavirus (2019-n CoV) spread Human Coronavirus diseases are usually said to be 'Zoonotic viral diseases'. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that originate in animals first and then spread to human beings and later these diseases spread from one individual to another. Scientists found that this present virus affected hens, sheep, pigs, camels, bamboo rats, foxes, hedgehogs, donkeys, etc. at first. Then from there, this virus spread to bats and snakes and finally into humans.
This virus can spread from individual to individual through the secretions of mouth and nose. Persons infected with this virus through coughing, sneezing or spreading of water droplets through the air while the infected patient talking can spread this virus. Clothes and objects contaminated with this virus, through body contact, through handshaking with infected persons are the cause of the spread of this disease. This virus can fully survive in both cold and warm-blooded animals. The Seafood available in Wuhan city of China is also one of the reasons for the spread of this disease.
Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus (2019-n CoV) disease Symptoms appear within 2-3 days once the virus infects an individual. The degree of infection can be classified into mild, moderate and severe according to the severity of symptoms. Running nose, cough, headache, throat pain, common cold, flu fever, weakness, bronchitis, pneumonia are the symptoms appear in the persons infected with this virus. High fever, breathing problems, severe respiratory disorders are the identifying symptoms of this infection. Individuals who are facing immunity disorders, cancer, and AIDS patients, patients transplanted with donor organs, patients with lung diseases, women carrying the pregnancy, small newly born babies, very old persons, individuals who are medicated heavily with steroids can easily get infected with this virus. If the infection reaches to severe stage it causes pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidneys failure and finally, it leads to death.
Preventive and control measures of Novel Coronavirus (2019-n CoV) infection
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An elaborate and detailed article on the coronavirus by the author and is very informative.
Whenever such deadly disease is in progression and is spreading through one human to other, the scientists would always try to find some vaccine for it. It is unfortunate that so far there is no success for this particular problem. There could be technical reasons for that but we can hope that soon some positive results will emerge from some corner of the world in this regard. Till such time we have to observe the precautions and preventive measures to safeguard ourselves from this deadly virus infection.
Everyone is aware that cold is a common symptom in most of the health-related issues. How to know the difference between the common cold and coronavirus affected cold? Since children have lesser immunity to fight against deadly diseases, we need to know the difference, so as to control it at initial levels.
Corona is the result of infection of deadly viruses and the symptoms manifesting after contracting this disease would lead to severe confusion since most of the symptoms resemble with common cough and cold. The patient may not be serious to visit a doctor immediately because of the prevailing symptoms. Our first approach should be to identify the deadly disease with the circulation of literature making common people aware of its symptoms and they should be in a position to differentiate the same from common cold symptoms.
Now it is designated as Covid19. It has spread to more countries. Italy has become the country second to China in mortality. The US also is affected.
Kerala state has some cases of Covid 19 now mainly from those who returned to India from Italy and the Gulf countries. The government is doing its best by spreading awareness, taking preventive measures and isolation and quarantine. The schools and colleges have been given leave till 31 st March. Only higher class exams are conducted. There is social awareness. People are taking pro-active actions voluntarily.
Hope it will be contained as early as possible.