IntroductionElectricity is among the most significant gifts that science has bestowed upon humanity. It seems to have become an integral element of modern life, and it is difficult to imagine a world without it. Electricity serves a variety of purposes in our daily lives. All of these give people a sense of security and sustainability.
Secondary sourceAmid the two broad main classifications of energy categories, electrical energy is the secondary energy source derived from converting principal energy sources such as fossil-fuels, atomic power, and other normal sources. It can be generated using renewable or non-renewable energy sources, yet electricity is neither renewable nor non-renewable.
Efficient formCompared to the primary energy sources, electrical energy is effective, efficient and clean, but some of the methods of producing it are not ecologically clean. It is easily transportable, but it can't be stored at a larger level. It is a controllable and convenient form of energy; once created, it must be used in the current technological environment.
Electrical energy characteristics
Effect on economyEnergy is a necessary component of production, and it is required in order to maintain current levels of income development and to also expand and promote economic growth. The replacement of other inputs with energy may also have macroeconomic constraints. Tools, machines, and factories require a constant flow of materials and energy to create, operate, and maintain. Humans who direct capital production use the same amount of energy and resources. As a result, producing more energy replacements necessitates a larger quantity of the item being replaced.
Electricity consumption vs Population growthAccording to the Energy Information Statistics, global energy consumption is increasing at a rapid rate than global people, resulting in a rise in the mean value of electricity utilized per inhabitant (per capita electricity consumption). Energy usage rises in tandem with population growth. It has been hypothesized that the quantity of energy sources available determines the size of the population that the planet can support. With most existing fuel sources nearing their maximum reserve and the hunt for viable and sustainable equivalents progressing, it's vital to examine how population expansion influences energy consumption. In my perception, more people, not necessarily more energy.
What's electric power consumption (kWh per capita)Electric power consumption refers to the amount of electricity produced by electrical generating stations and the combined heat and power plants after deducting the power line losses (transmission and distribution) and power consumption by the sources themselves. Or, in other words, it is the net energy or power available after the power loss for usage, which will be less than the power produced.
What is GDP?Gross domestic product (GDP) is the final goods and services of all the value added generated in an economy. The wealth generated is the difference between the cost of production of goods and services and the cost of goods and services required to produce them, also known as intermediate consumption.
It has traditionally been used by economists to gauge economic success. Its growth indicates that the economy is in excellent condition and that the country is advancing. On the other hand, if it falls, the economy may be in risk and the country may be losing progress.
GDP is determined by combining all of the total expenditure in a particular period by individuals, companies, and the government. It could also be computed by totaling all of the money received by all of the economy's players.
Let's see an example of calculating GDP
GDP = HC + PI + GS + NE
HC – represents the households' (individuals') consumption (say USD100)
CI – gross private investment (companies) (say USD40)
CS – government spending (say USD50), and
NE – net exports (say USD5)
With the given sample quantities, GDP is found to be USD 195 (100+40+50+5)
What is per capita electricity consumption?For a country, the measure of electricity consumption per capita is regarded as one of the most significant indicators of energy security, indicating the availability of safe and sufficient energy supplies for domestic consumption and overseas commerce. Besides, it is a key indicator of a country's progress in terms of electrification. In general, while the industrialization process accelerates, electricity consumption rises quicker, and when the process is done or near completion, demand falls swiftly.
Electricity consumption per capita = Total electricity consumption in kWh / Total population
Impact on economyChanges in the economy's structure, such as moves to more energy-intensive industries, as well as changes in service demand, such as rising requirement for cooling and ventilating appliances, are likely to account for increases in per capita electricity consumption. Efficiency improvements, such as more efficient lighting, somewhat offset the rise in demand caused by these causes. Outsourcing energy-intensive sectors to other nations has had a regional impact on per capita electricity usage in several nations.
Global electrical energy consumption is rising in tandem with economic expansion, although the relationship varies by nation. Growth in per-person economic activity may happen without corresponding increases in per-person electricity consumption. It is conceivable in nations with big, developed markets, substantially balanced household electricity consumption, and a comparatively small proportion of productivity increases due to industrial activity. It is not necessarily necessary to use more electricity to provide a higher-value service than to provide a lower-value service.
Per capita electricity consumption vs GDP per capitaPer capita electricity consumption and the GDP per capita have an interesting relationship, depending upon the country's economic status. For simplicity of presentation and ease of understanding, I sort out all countries mainly into three categories, such as the poorest income, middle income and the highest income. For these three groups of countries, the relationship between per capita electricity consumption and GDP per capita resembles an inverted-U curve. According to global economic and electricity consumption statistics, per capita electricity consumption and GDP per capita have a positive slope, indicating that electricity use is low in the poorest countries. Whereas per capita electricity consumption and GDP per capita have a linear connection with a negative slope, showing that the cost share is low in the highest-income nations once again. In middle-income nations, however, electricity spending is substantial when compared to GDP.
Per capita electricity consumption vs GDP per capita
India's world rankings
The BRICS group is made up of five large rising countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, which together contribute for about 42% of global population, 23 percent of GDP, 30 percent of territory, and 18 percent of global commerce.
India is ranked 125th in the world, with a per capita electricity consumption of 857 kWh in 2020. This is the most worrying factor, though the total electricity production, consumption and GDP figures are at highly appreciable levels.
Let's see the reasons for such an unwanted situation in our nation.
Why is it shocking?
Hooking, bypassing, and defective meters, as well as errors in meter reading, estimating unmetered energy supply, equipment breakdown, and low-quality infrastructure, are the main causes of non-technical losses (or administrative losses). The losses, including technical and non-technical, total about 28%. In an ideal situation, T&D losses should be between 6% and 8%.
The energy needs of city occupants are significantly higher than those of rural inhabitants. This is because city dwellers have a better quality of living, and their way of life necessitates larger energy inputs in all areas of life.
ConclusionThe examination of India's alarming trend in per capita power consumption in recent years is an excellent field for doing Electrical Power Systems Engineering research in order to obtain a PhD with financial help. Due to the scarcity of research results in this field, there is a significant need for both the electrical sector and commercial firms that provide power industry consulting services. I confined myself to a few points of analysis of the low per capita electricity consumption, which would be useful for the candidates aiming at research besides the society caring about our country's growth.