IntroductionFertilizers are materials that are supplied to plants and crops. This is in addition to the intake of material by plants from nature. These products will help the crops to result in higher yields. All plants require some essential nutrients for their growth. These essential nutrients will be available to the plant from the soil and nature. But in some lands the concentration of some of these essential materials may be less and fertilizers will be used to overcome this deficiency. It is like human beings using vitamin tablets for additional strength. Essential elements like nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), nitrogen (N), zinc (Zn), phosphorus (P), molybdenum (Mo), potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and boron (B) to plants and crops can be supplied by applying suitable fertilizer. Fertilizers will enhance the water retention capacity of the land.
The human population in this world is increasing day by day. Consequently, the requirement for food materials is increasing. But the land availability is coming down for cultivation as the requirement for housing is also increasing day by day. So to increase the production of foodgrains application of fertilizers has become essential.
Fertilizers and their importance is being taught to 8th-class students in their science subject in AP and Telangana.
Types of Fertilizers: These fertilizers are mainly divided into three types. They are
Organic fertilizers: Fertilizers that are made using plant parts and animal parts are known as organic fertilizers. These fertilizers will contain naturally occurring materials only. They will be useful to increase the fertility of the soil by supplying essential elements to the plants. These fertilizers enhance the microbial production capacity in the soil. In addition to that they supply some chemicals and thus change the physical and chemical composition of the soil.
The following products can be considered organic fertilizers.
Inorganic Fertilizers: These are the fertilizers that are manufactured by using chemical technology. These fertilizers may contain substances that are useful for the crops as essential nutrients.
The following are the various types of inorganic fertilizers:
Biofertilizers: In addition to the above two, there is another variety of fertilizers. They are known as biofertilizers These fertilizers are substances containing cells and micro-organisms. These materials will improve the fertility and retaining capacity of the soil. They are environment-friendly.
How to use fertilizers: They are solids and can be transported easily. Storing and applying them to the plants is also not very difficult. Based on the soil condition and the crop we are growing we can select a suitable fertilizer that can be applied. We can consult the agriculture scientist and take their opinion and accordingly we can apply the fertilizers. These scientists will analyse the soil and study the nature of the plant. They will suggest suitable fertilizer. These fertilizers are soluble in water and can also get dissolved in the soil. Thus, they are easily available to plants. They help plants to grow rapidly and give better yields.
But fertilizers should be used with a proper understanding only. Less quantity may not give sufficient growth. At the same time, excessive usage can damage the plants and soil also. There is a chance these fertilizers may get mixed into the nearest water beds through soil by leaching. These waters may cause harm to human beings. Some of the ingredients of fertilizers are toxic and may cause skin diseases and respiratory problems in human beings.
Advantages of fertilizers:The following are some of the advantages we will get by the application of fertilizers to crops and plants
Conclusion:To meet the demand for food products, it has become important to use fertilizers. Using the right quality and the right quantity of fertilizer is very important to get the desired benefit.
Fertilisers are essential for adequate crop production. With repeated crops from the same soil it is obvious that the soil loses many essential materials which are necessary for a good growth of the crop. Hence we have to supplement these nutrients by mixing proper quantity of it in soil. As far as possible it is advisable to use organic manure as it is not harmful for the health of the people. Chemical fertilizers are helpful in increasing the yield of the crop but there are dangers of its effect on humans as well as the flora and fauna in the locality.