Infectious Diseases And Vaccination Schedule for Child And Its Significance


Read this to know about Infectious Diseases And Vaccination Schedule for Child And Its Significance. The article describes the time for vaccination of Rubella, Chicken pox, Polio, Mumps, Measles etc.

Child birth in any family brings a lot of happiness for the family. At the same time, it brings a lot of responsibilities for parents. One should have a healthy child as children build are building blocks of a family and nation when they become adults. All parents should be aware of Vaccination Schedule for child

Vaccination gives immunity to fight against various infections by building immunity. Vaccines may be containing either live or inactivated organisms (attenuated vaccine) organisms
One has to be very careful during early neonatal and infancy as child is more susceptible for some diseases due to inadequate immunity.

Vaccination is very important in prevention of childhood diseases and some vaccines give lifelong immunity against certain diseases. Some vaccines need booster doses after a certain interval. Certain vaccines are live while others are inactive.

BCG- Bacille Calmitte Guerine

This gives protection against tuberculosis ( TB). TB is a very common health problem in developing countries like India. It is said that almost every Indian gets exposed to TB organisms. So this vaccine is given as early as possible after birth preferably within 1st 2 days when delivered lady is still hospitalized.

MMR

It consists of 3 vaccines- Mumps, Measles, Rubella


Mumps -

This is caused by a virus. It is manifested as epidemic parotitis ( Painful swelling of the salivary glands). Mumps virus was the leading cause of viral meningoencephalitis earlier.
Fever, headache, malaise and anorexia are other constitutional symptoms.

Generally it will subside slowly but sometimes it may cause complications like
1. Orchitis in a male baby which may lead to infertility..
2. Viral meningoencephalitis
Live, attenuated mumps virus vaccine is used as it gives a longterm immunity. The vaccine may be given separately or as part of the MMR . The mumps vaccine has helped a lot in achieving a decrease in the incidence of mumps

Measles –

Measles comes in the category of “ exanthematous fevers”.
The word "exanthem" is a Greek word meaning “ rash”. Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that primarily affects children.
It is characterized by fever, cough, cold,, red eyes and a generalized, maculopapular, erythematous rash.
3 “C”s help in diagnosing measles- Cough, coryza , Conjunctivitis.
Koplik's spots are seen inside the mouth . These are pathognomonic for measles but are not seen commonly.
Measles can lead to serious complications sometimes like

Complications Of Measles



1.“ Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ( SSPE)”
2. Corneal ulceration leading to corneal scarring

Thanks to the efforts of UNICEF, measles deaths worldwide have dropped by 74 percent since 2000. UNICEF is the global leader in vaccine supply, supplying 50% of the world’s need.

Rubella-

This is given at 9 months of age.

In US and UK, rubella vaccine is given compulsorily for all adolescent girls. If girl affected by rubella gets pregnant, child can develop some serious congenital anomalies called as “ Congenital Rubella Syndrome”. This vaccine gives protection.

Congenital Rubella Syndrome

Child develops various abnormalities like
1. Cardiac- Patent ductus arteriosus
2. Defective dentition
3. Deafness
4. Salt pepper fundus or Rubella retinopathy – an abnormality of retina

American Academy of Pediatrics recommends administration of MMR vaccine at the age of 12-15 months and at 4-6 years.
Efficacy of the vaccine is usually around 80%.

Reye's syndrome

Aspirin use is discouraged in young children with viral fever due to chances of Reye’s syndrome. Paracetamol, acetaminophen or ibuprofen can be used.

Chicken Pox

This is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) also known as human herpes virus 3 (HHV-3). It is very contagious from about 2 days before the rash appears and lasts until all the blisters are crusted over. It is acquired by the inhalation droplets from an infected host.

Vaccine

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the vaccine for all children and adults with no history of the disease
From 12 months to 12 years of age – 1 dose.
13 years and above – 2 doses with an interval of 6-10 weeks.

How the vaccine is given

The vaccine is given subcutaneously.

When the vaccine should not be given? What information to be given to doctor

1. Immuno-compromised people
2. Anybody suffering from acute severe febrile illness.
3. Pregnant women
4. Any reaction to previous vaccine
5. If one is taking any drugs like steroids, inform doctor.

OPV ( Oral Polio Vaccine )

Pulse polio programme is going on all over the world to eradicate this disease. India is participating actively in this. Generally OPV is given in December or Jan months on selected days at the same time all over India.
In earlier days, polio used to be seen commonly and it used to make children handicapped. Nowadays with aggressive vaccination, polio is almost eradicated.

Hepatitis B vaccine

Hepatitis B virus ( HBV) causes hepatitis. This can lead to liver cirrhosis and cancer.
HBV is transmitted very easily through blood and this is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. As HBV can survive adverse atmospheric conditions, this is a of more concern than HIV. This HBV is more dangerous than HIV as death can occur within a few days due to
“ fulminant hepatic failure”

Doses are given at 0, 1 , 6 months. 0 means the day when 1st dose is given. Booster doses are recommended after every 1 year

It is available as
3. Genetically engineered vaccine
4. Derived from human sera of infected people

Genetically engineered vaccine is preferable as it doesn’t have the risk of transmitting infection from 1 person to the other.
It is available with following brand names
1. Engerix
2. Shanvac
.


Tetanus toxoid

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