Types of personalities




Personality behavior gives a considerate idea about the personality types. There are various types of personalities being recognized they are:

1) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: It is known as MBTI structure. It has given some basic personalities out of which some of them are Extroverted vs. introverted, sensing vs. intuitive, thinking vs. feeling, and perceiving vs. judging etc.

The nature of a personality type ‘introverted, intuitive, thinking and judging' possess certain qualities which can be to possess vision, thinking with original mind, to have original ideas, to have great drive and skeptical, critical, independent, determined and stubborn.

2) The Big Five Personality Types: This type of personality dimension is recognized in terms of the big five factors. The types included under this category are:

• Extraversion: It means to give importance to relationships.
• Agreeableness: It is related to the thinking in a different manner.
• Conscientiousness: It means the possession of reliability.
• Emotional stability: It means to have ability to withstand stress.
• Openness to experience: It means those who are interested and fascinated by novelty.

3) Physiognomy Personality Types: William Sheldon has given three types of personality based on the human anatomical or physical structure of persons and psychological characteristics. Physical size of the body persuades the human behaviour and temperaments. The personality types are.

a) Endomorph: The various characteristics of personality and behaviour related with the body type are friendly, concern to people, helping others in troubles, very slow reaction to stimuli. They seek comfort; have strong inclination to delicious food, etc. The persons who have these personality characteristics, are appreciated and accepted easily by the society or a group.

b) Mesomorph: Those people who have reasonable physical characteristics are known as Mesomorph. The body such persons are strong and tough. The personality characteristics of this type are: seeks physical adventure, enjoys body building, feels restless, shows high aggression and self assertiveness, likes to take risk and develops competitive spirit. The person is similar to by having good and attractive physique.

c) Ectomorph: Ectomorph body type is defined and recognized by a thin and flat chest. Usually, the person under this type or category is intelligent, feels shy and avoids social contact. This type of persons are usually found to be anxious, ambitious, and dedicated to his work. They are quick to react and oversensitive to pain and pleasure.

4) Extrovert-Introvert Personality Types: Carl Jung is the advocated this theory. This theory is used to analyze the psychological approach of a person. According to this theory, personality is developed as a process of creativity. It consists of four stages: thinking, feeling, sensation and intuition. A person's personality is a combination of these factors. This theory has projected two personality characteristics on two extreme ends. They are extrovert and introvert type personality. While extrovert people are more sociable, introvert people are self-confident and they are directed by their own personal thoughts. Extroverts are friendly and reality based persons.

They are performing the functions accordingly. On the other hand, introverts are less risk taking and directive oriented. They need strong motivation and specific directions. While extroverts think in terms of objective and interactive relationships, the own philosophy and ideology guide the thinking of introverts.

This theory is very practical in the management of organisational behaviour. Job design, motivation, leadership styles, career development, training, organisational change, organisational development and organisational effectiveness are based on the personality characteristics. Introvert performs better in monotonous jobs. Extrovert performs better in dynamic and environmental centred jobs. Similarly extrovert needs independent style of leadership and introvert needs directive oriented leadership. Thus, the theory is used in developing organisational strategies to deal with individual employees for increasing organisational effectiveness.

5) Type A and Type B Personality: Type A personality is given by Friedman and Rosenman that it is forcefully concerned in a continual, nonstop struggle to achieve more in less time, and, if necessary to do so, alongside the opposing efforts of other things or other persons. They have defined Type B personality as infrequently harassed by the desire to obtain a wildly increasing number of things or participate in an endless mounting sequence of proceedings in an ever declining amount of time.


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