Origin of Earth and Universe


This article describes about how the universe probably originated and how did Earth get its origin and the Big Bang Theory about the origin of Universe.

It has been always a mystery when we try to run the horses of our mind that what were the possible reasons or events behind the formation of our planet earth and the universe. Possible hypothesis have been laid down by many scientists and philosophers regarding this mysterious story of the origin and evolution of earth and universe. However, none have been able to provide strong evidences to clarify their view point.



Origin of Earth:

Innumerable hypotheses have been presented by many scientists regarding the origin of the earth. One of the earliest and most popular arguments was given by a German philosopher named Immanuel Kant. The hypothesis was known as Nebular Hypothesis. It was later studied by a mathematician Laplace and revised by him in 1796. It said that planets are formed out of clouds of material associated with the sun that are slowly rotating. In 1900, Chamberlain and Moulton considered that a wandering star approached the sun. As a result a cigar shaped extension of the material separated from the solar surface. As the wandering star moved away, the material separated from the solar surface started revolving around the sun and condensed to form planets. This argument was supported by Sir James Jeans and Sir Harold Jeffrey. Later it was considered that a companion of sun is also co-existing. These theories came to be known as binary theories. In 1950, Otto Schmidt in Russia and Carl Weizascar in Germany revised the Nebular Hypothesis, though it differed in variety of means. They said sun was surrounded by clouds called nebula containing hydrogen, helium and dust. The friction and collision of the particles condensed them and later they resulted into planets by accretion.



Origin of Universe:

Later scientists studied the origin of universe rather than being limited to the earth or other planets. In this context the most popular argument is known as the ‘Big bang' theory. It is also known as the expanding universe theory. In 1920 Edwin Hubble showed with evidence that our universe is expanding. As the time passes, the galaxies start moving apart from each other. For example, take a balloon and mark several points on it representing the various galaxies. One can see that upon inflation, the points start moving far from each other. Similarly, the galaxies are also separating from each other thus showing that the universe is also expanding. Besides the distancing between the points on balloon, it is seen that the size of the points also increases at the same time. This is not in accordance with the fact. Scientists agree with the fact that the galaxies are moving apart, but observations do not support the expansion of galaxies. So this example is partially correct.



Big Bang Theory: Big Bang theory is basically related to the origin of the earth. According to this theory following stages took place for the development of the universe:

1.In the beginning, al the matter of the universe was at a single place and in the form of a ‘tiny ball' (singular atom), having unimaginably small volume, infinite temperature and infinite density.

2.At the time of the Big Bang, the ‘tiny ball' exploded. This led to huge explosion. It has been accepted that the ‘Big Bang' took place 13.7 billion years before the present. The expansion is continuing even today. There was a rapid expansion within the fraction of seconds of explosion. As it grew some energy was converted into matter.

3.Within 300,000 years after the Big bang, the temperature has dropped down by 4500 Kelvin. The energy is converted into atomic matter.

In addition to the above theories, Hoyle said that universe is in steady state. That is it is constant.


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