Before Europeans arrived in the Argentina, nomadic tribes roamed in Pampas and Patagonia. The first groups to settle were the Diaguita and Guarani and farm in Argentina, They cultivated maize, corn and other crops. In 1776 the Spain created a colony in Argentina, the vice-royalty of La plata which was make of Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Bolivia, Brazil and Chile. The provinces have declared independence form Spain and the new country formed is know as United Provinces of La Plata. The present name formed in 1860 when it gained territory in 1874 after war with Paraguay. The terror that followed after the removal of Peron from the office by the military is known as ‘dirty war'. The people of Argentina experienced the dark period of violence. The military restricted civil rights and, tortured, imprisoned and killed thousands of people. In 1995, Menem was re-elected and the government spent heavily and debts increased and many companies closed, workers lost jobs and during 1990's the country was reeling under recession.
Education in Argentina
People who are 15 years of age and more can read and write. The public schools offer free education for elementary and high school education. All children from 5 to 14 have to attend school. There are about 80 universities, some are run by the government and many are private funded schools. The largest university is the University of Buenos Aires. The other popular universities include the Catholic university of Argentina, the National Technological University and the National University of Cordoba. There are number of private technical and vocational schools along with universities that offers different programs in different cities.
Art and Culture
European culture has greatly influenced the Argentine architecture, motion pictures, fine arts and music. There are number of urban centers that have many artistic and cultural heritages. There are number of theaters that present plays and musical nights in Buenos Aires. The Tango dance has become popular in fashionable cities of Paris and New York. The orchestra may consists of a musical instrument such as a piano, a violin, and accordion. The music is often of sad lyrics and nostalgic. The popular tango singer was Carlo Gardel during 1920's and 1930's.
There are not many literature of Argentina. The colonial life is described in detail in the book The Guide for Blind Wayfarers that was published. The historical source Hauchesca poetry developed in mid 1800's describes about the politics of that period. The most famous poetry The return of Martin Fierroby Jose Hernandez are the examples of Gaucesca poetry. In 1900's Jorge Luis Borges an Argentine essayist, a poet, and short story writer won praise for his brilliant use of language and original observations about the human survival. In Argentina painting did not develop before 1800's. The rural life and the immigrants lives and workers were introduced in Argentine's painting. Now, Argentine is a major center for Latin American painting.
Land and the Climate
The landscape of Argentine includes lofty mountains, vast deserts, fertile plains and the swampy forest. Argentina is divided into four main land regions:
- The Northern Argentina which is a low land plain and lies east of Andes Mountains and north of Cordoba Mountains, It consists of two sub regions the Gran Chaco called Chaco which lies between the Parana river and the lower of the Andes Mountains. The Chaco is covered with scrub forests and very small population live in this region. Summers get heavy rains which causes overflowing of rivers and the land is dry for most of the year. Soybeans, cotton, sunflowers, wheat, are grown the farmers in this region. The harvesting trees are the Quebracho trees that form the important economic activity. The trees hard wood is used to make telephone poles and railroad ties. The tree also provides tannin that is used in the leather industry.
Mesopotamia is a fertile region between the rivers of Parana and Uruguay. The Iguazu Falls are spectacular with 275 waterfalls near the junction of two rivers the Parana and the Uruguay. The climate is hot, humid in Mesopotamia and its covered with rolling grass-covered plains in the region. Grazing is done in this region by the farmer with their sheep, cattle and horses. The crops on these plains are corn, soybeans, citrus fruits and rice. The mate tree or the holy tree grows wild in these regions from which the leaves are used to make the tea.
- The Pampas are spread around the Buenos Aires which is a fertile land and covers about fifth of Argentina. It has the world's richest topsoil and it forms the main agricultural region. The pastures of Pampas are great herds of cattle graze and the crops grown are the soya bean, wheat and fields of corn.
- The Andean Region is the mountainous region of Argentina and consists of two sub regions the Andes Mountains which separates Argentina from Chile. Living in the broad plateaus called Puna is a small Indian population who raise sheep in this region. There are snow-capped peaks and active glaciers and beautiful lakes in the northern part of Argentina which attracts the tourists for skiing and hiking. The Piedmont regions consist of low mountains and desert valleys on the east side of Andes. Farmers grow sugarcane and corn is grown here. Vineyards are produce grapes for Argentine wines which are exported around the world.
- The Patagonia is a dry plateau in the south occupying more that quarter of Argentina. The region is not suitable for crop growing due to water scarcity. The major economy comes from the extraction of oil and mineral gas. People living on the two northern rivers the Colorodo and Negro farmers grow apples and pears. The region Patagonias are popular for sea animals such as
Penguins, sea lions, whales and other animals.
Mild climate conditions prevail in Argentina and it has the highest temperature. There is abundance of rainfall and the country is largely affected by the ocean wind. The moist air from Atlantic makes the summers uncomfortably humid in Mesopotamia and the Pampas. Winds from both oceans roars continuously over Patagonia. The plateau is warm in winter and cool in summer.
Politics and Economy
Argentina follows republic form of government. The country is divided into 23 provinces and Buenos Aires the Federal District. Argentina adopted its constitution in 1853 and proclaimed the country as a democratic republic. It has independent executive, legislative and judicial branches, with the executive branch being the strongest. The parliament has a president, a vice president and a cabinet appointed by the President. The president is the head of the government; he is elected for four year terms. The largest political parties are the Justicialist Party and the Radical Civic Union. People who are above 8 years and older are eligible for voting and may have to go to prison if they fail to vote. The Supreme Court is the highest court in Argentina which consists of nine judges appointed by the President. There are three main branches of Argentina's armed forces, the Air Force, the Army and the Navy. The voluntary services for the country includes the Coast Guard and the National Gendarmerie. The country has suffered in its history by unstable governments, harsh military dictatorships and political terrorism. The nation was ruled by military dictatorship.
The agricultural products form the main source of income for Argentine's economy. Its activity is concentrated in Buenos Aires Cordoba and Santa Fe Provinces and in the city of Buenos Aires. The service industries and the manufacturing products account for the gross domestic product. The international tourism also plays an important factor in the economy of Argentina since 200's.The manufacturing industries includes the food processing plants, electrical equipment plants and printed materials and textiles. The oil refineries are located in the city of Rosario which makes metal products and chemicals. The chief mineral resource is Petroleum, and it is exported. Copper, gold, iron ore, silver, copper and zinc deposits are also found in Argentina.
Argentina's electric power comes from burning of natural gas supply. Fishing crew also exports major catch to the European countries. Argentina's imports include chemicals, machinery, metal plastics, mechanical equipment and transportation equipment.
Transport and Communication
Spread across Buenos Aires and out are efficient rail roads, air routes and highways. Buenos Aires is the country's busiest airports in the country. There are over 40 broadcast television stations that operate in the country and many of them are owned by private people. The people have access to cable, satellite and internet facilities in major cities. Around 150 newspapers are published and Buenos Aires have the largest circulations.
Why study in Argentina?
- The country Argentina provides lots of adventure in Argentina and invokes high spirits for exploration. Lot of Study opportunities offered to international students and to a have an excitement.
- The country is colorful, versatile and spectacular place to visit. It provides high standards of research and new challenges.
- The nation encourages scientific tradition to preserve its prestige and enables the students to lead the country to prosperity.
- The programs offered in science extends are beyond the learning and provides exciting experiences.
- The study abroad in Argentina enables to students to learn the language Spanish and offers several lists of things to do in the country.
- The country provides opportunities for students to visit art galleries, museums, theater parks, historic sites and many more.
- The higher education in Argentina is one of best training systems in Latin America.
- The universities provide internships, summer and semester programs and offers varied courses of graduation, post graduation and research programs.
- The capital of Argentina is Buenos Aires.
- The official language of Argentina is Spanish.
- The official name of Argentina is Republic Argentina.
- The basic unit of money is Argentine peso.
- The national flag consists of coat of arms bear a sun, which represents Argentina's freedom from Spain.
- The Argentine wine is recognized world wide which is of high quality. Malbec is a unique Argentine red wine.
- Mate the tea is a popular drink of Argentine.
- The two important national festivals are Independence Day on July 9 and May 25, the anniversary of the 1810 revolution when Argentina set up an independent government.
- In Spanish Soccer is known as futbol the popular sport of Argentina.
- The Colon Theater in Buenos Aires is the home for National Ballet, National Opera, and National Symphony.
- The Tango is the national music and dance of Argentina, which originated in 1800's in Buenos Aires.
- The Parana River basin is the second largest in South America the first being the Amazon basin.
- The the tallest mountain in the Western Hemisphere in the Andes is the Aconcagua.
Admission Process in Argentina
- You need to meet the minimum requirements as prescribed by the universities.
- Application forms to be completely fill out; it can be downloaded or obtained from the admission office.
- Attested copies of the degree obtained and the confirmation letter from high school.
- One recent passport size photo and a copy of passport.
- A valid score copy of TOEFL test.
Student Visa Application Process
Students who wish to study in Argentina should have a visa for upto90 days. The visa can be obtained from Argentine embassies and consulates. The following are the documents required:
- A valid passport along with two 4x4 photos.
- Proof for acceptance in the university or the study course.
- Proof to show that you have no criminal record.
- Processing fee for student visa to be paid.
Documents required for Visa
- Copies of birth certificate certified.
- Proof for sufficient funds to meet the expenses for the study and the stay in the countries, which includes, food, accommodation and utility expenses.
- Proof of knowledge of Spanish.
- Record to show good conduct from the country.
- Document showing the itinerary mentioning the place of stay and the flight details.
Argentina is heavily populated in some parts of the country while other has less population. The main language spoken in Argentina is Spanish and many of them understand Italian. Argentines are hardy, rugged people and mostly belong to middle class. The school curriculum in high school has Fresh as a subject and people are increasingly becoming popular with English. There are vast differences between the statuses of the Argentines, the rich live in the mansions and luxury apartment buildings while the poor and unemployed people live in slums. The Argentine cities resemble Spanish ones and the center around a main square called a plaza. The capital city Buenos Aires resembles a European capital with attractive parks, balconied apartment buildings and wide boulevards. The gap between the wealthy and the poor is strikingly evident with landowners live in elegant homes on huge ranches called estancias on the Pampa and in Patagonia. The homes resemble the Spanish homes with a patio surrounded by rooms. Rural people live in huts with adobe walls and roofs made of straw and mud. The romantic figure of the gaucho is the folklore of Argentine.
The people of Argentine are very well dressed and the rich follow the latest trends in Paris and other western capitals. People of rural areas wear distinctive clothing that includes the loose trousers tucked into low boots a poncho and a wide brimmed hat. Argentina is popular for the excellent beef quality and the most distinctive way of cooking meat is the asdo (the roast or barbecue). It includes the chicken, pork, beef, prime ribs sausages and other parts of animals roasted on open air grill called a parilla. The pastries are called the Empanadas which is filled with cheese, vegetables meat, cheese other fillings. These are served as snack or as traditional appetizer. Italian cooking influences the Argentines with high quality ice cream pasta and pizza. The dinning time for Argentines are late hours, they have their breakfast until ten am, lunch between noon and 2:30 p.m and dinner after nine p.m. The mate the popular tea drink is made from the mate leaves and shoots of mate plant.
People share their mate to express their friendship. The most popular sport of Argentina is Soccer and other sports include the basketball, rugby, horse and the automobile racing. The Soccer games draw thousands of people to the country to witness the sport. Pato is another interesting sport in which the players on the horseback try to toss a six-handled ball into a high basket. The popular vacation sports are the Atlantic coast and the hilly country of Cordoba province. A number of national festivals are observed such as Inti Raymi, the Quechua Festival of the Sun, in June. The people offer thanks giving to the Sun for the year's harvest. The religious festivals are enjoyed by the Argentines throughout the year. The Roman Catholics carry their colorful processions and celebrate with fireworks. During the Carnival the people dance in the streets and indulge in merrymaking with wine and beer festivals and corn and wheat festivals. Folklore festivals are also held frequently in many parts of the country.Argentina is proud of its scenic beauty offering a peaceful life and away from heat fervour of the city.
Cost of Living for Students
The main exciting cities in Argentina to explore are the Buenos Aires which is a dynamic vibrant and alive city that provides electric sciences every day. Cordoba offers a combination of old school charm packed with contrasts where you can find DJS spinning tunes. Rosario city buzzes with various faculties with lots of energetic activity art galleries, parks, sports clubs, museums etc. The Indian culture is alive in Rosario, yoga and Hinduism are embraced in all its color and glory. Transportation is easy and cheap. Students can attend night classes. Students can be living with a family, apartment, independent housing and youth hostel.To move around in the country you will need a SUBE card which can be purchased at any kiosk. Taxis and Ubers are priced reasonably. Avoid planning for buying clothes, electronics in Buenos Airs.
Documents for University Admissions in Argentina
- A valid passport
- Argentina campus authorization, transcript of record and signed by the students university.
- Photocopies of graduation or diploma courses
- Registration fee for bachelor's degree /master's degree or for research work.
- A civil liability certificate along with social security fees.
- A cover letter with a resume.
- A health insurance card to cover the expenses during in the stay in Afghanistan.
- A copy of English language certificate.
- Documents showing a valid score of GPA.
- Financial funds proof for your stay in Argentina.