All children from ages 6 through 12 have to attend the school. Iraq has many universities in different cities of Iraq. Half of the population of Iraq can read and write. In Arab world Iraq has the high quality schools and colleges, however after the Gulf war, only abut 40% of Iraqi can read and write. Education system was introduced in 1921 offering both to public and private systems. During 1970 the education was free to children at all levels; the education system is managed by two ministries, the ministry of education and the ministry of Higher education and scientific research. The educations system in Iraq is one of the best at the region before the wars. The education began to deteriorate due to the wars. Due to bombing in 2006, teachers and students were displaced, this destabilized the education system. Iraq intends to transform the nation into a peaceful and prosperous country. The National development strategy consists of four areas of concern, the strengthening, economic growth, revitalizing the private sector and improving quality of life and strengthening good governance. The main objective of education is to improve the quality of life, and to make the healthy citizens to productive citizens.
The country faces huge challenges in the education scenario. Most of the schools lack clean water and latrines, the schools are built of mud, straw and tents. The schools have poor quality of inputs in areas of science labs, libraries, food sources teaching faculty. The wars have damaged the schools severely. Many schools were closed for long periods in war prone regions. Many education people were killed. Currently many reforms and actions are implemented to meet the challenges in education system. Around 3500 schools were rehabilitated large number of teachers were recruited. The educational system focuses on providing education to girl students. Changes were brought in curriculum and provisions were made in learning resources. Distance learning programs were introduced. The country increased it s collaborations with other countries.
Universities of Iraq University of Dahuk
This university is one of the fastest growing institutes in Dahuk city. The university plays an important role in the development of the society by imparting knowledge in areas of socio cultural, and scientific knowledge. The university was established in 1992 by the Kurdistan regional government. The university has 18 colleges and 76 departments. The university provides excellent infrastructure that includes laboratories, libraries, sports areas, housing accommodation etc. It is a member of International Association of universities and European Association of international Education and Association of Arab universities. University of Bagdad
This university is second largest university in the Arab World and the largest university in Iraq. It’s a non profit, private university founded in 1957. It is located in Bagdad and the university offers courses and programs leading to awarding higher education degrees as prebachelor’s, bachelor’s, and master’s and doctorate degrees. The university welcomes international students and admissions are based on students past academic records and grades. The university ranks third in the country. The university came into existence due to the increased demand to keep up with the fast pace in the civilized world of internet. As the need for the learned people increased in areas of websites administration through fast communication, the idea for the establishment of the university emerged. The university has been a source to many graduated staff members. The Bagdad University consists of colleges which includes law, engineering, medicine, arts, agriculture, veterinary, pharmacology. Adding to these were administrative science languages, landscape, architecture, physical education. Increased developments in Iraq resulted in expansion of staff members and educational developments. The university offers scope for post graduates and is an integral system that consists of 24 scientific and humanitarian colleges. The university believes that building Man and developing the society are the basis for building a country. The university aims at providing the qualified ma n power in various fields. It aims to improve the educational and administrative functions in improving scientific achievements to keep in pace at global level. The university emphasis on improving the capacity of personnel and re-engineering the procedures to facilitate processes to adopt modern techniques. University of Babylon
This university was established in 1991, and is located in Babylon, Iraq. The university consists of 20 colleges; it imparts knowledge in wide range of subjects. The university has newspapers run by the students. The university colleges imparts knowledge in areas of agriculture, arts, education, computer technology, dentistry, law, management and economics, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, science, physical education and veterinary medicine. American University of Iraq, SulaimaniThis university is the first non-government, non-profit institution which is American style of higher education in Iraq. The university was established in 2007 for innovation in higher education in Iraq. The university aims at creating graduates with knowledge and skill et required for success. The university offers professional programs such as information technology and business, engineering and humanities with emphasis on English. The core program of university focuses on building student’s curiosity and developing their skills in varied areas. The institute strives to become an academic center and provide excellence in academics for the community benefit or the people f KRG and Iraq. Admissions are based on student’s high academic merit. The university depends on the results on Baccalaureate examination and English Placement Test.
The Geography and the climate of Iraq
The land of Iraq is dived into four regions;
The northern plain – This is the region which is dry and has rolling lands and lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. There are many small numbers of villages whose people are into farming.
The southern plain- This region begins near Samarra and extends southeast to the Persian Gulf. Between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers lie the fertile plains where many people live. The rivers meet at the town of Al Qurnah. The flow of waters in the southern plains are controlled by complex dam and irrigation systems.
The mountains- These are the northeast Iraq of a range called the Aagros. Living at the foothills and valleys are the population of Kurds. In this region many oil fields are located near the cities of Mosul and Kirkuk.
The desert- This region covers the southwestern and the western Iraq. This region consists of limestone hills and sand dunes, which is the part of Syrian Desert. There are many wadis the valley or ravines that are scattered though out the desert.
The climate of Iraq has a desert climate warm or hot days and cool nights, Iraq receives little rainfall in the desert and snow in the northern mountains.
Iraq’s Economy, transportation and communication
Airports link Iraq’s cities and Airports in Baghdad and other cities handles the international flights. The roads and trains connect the Iraq’s cities and Basra was one of the major which was damaged during the wars. There are more than 100 private newspapers and magazines that are circulated in the country. Iraq is a founding member of the United Nations and the Arab League. Iraqis are the best painters and sculptors in the Arab world; they are famous for their fine handicraft carpets.
The historic sites of Iraq
Babylon : It is a popular destination to see the ancient castles of the world. Babylon is a historic site located on the western bank of Euphrates River. The tower of Babel rose above the city. Babylon’s hanging gardens are one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Babylon is one of the most famous ancient cities of the world. It was founded five thousand years ago. Parts of Nebuchadnezzars palace and old city walls are possible to see in Babylon.
Hatra: It is a fortified Parthian city. It withstood many attacks by Roman Empire. The city reflects both Hellenistic and Roman influences. It was the first city in Iraq to be inscribed on the world heritage sites.
Samarra- It is an archeological city located on the river Tigre. The city has two largest mosques and largest palaces in the Islamic world.
Erbil Citadel: This is situated on the top of a tell in Iraqi Kurdistan and overlooks the Erbil city. The site contains the ancient remains dating back to Assyrian period. The Erbil citadel is an example of Ottoman era urban planning.
Quick Facts The name Iraq means deeply rooted well watered fertile in Arabic The largest and the Capital city of Iraq is Baghdad. The official name of Iraq is State of Iraq. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdis The currency of Iraq is new Iraqi dinar. Iraq’s flag was adopted in 1963. It consists of Arabian writing on the white stripe which means’ God is Great’. The flag has an eagle resembling a sculpture in the castle of Saladin, an Arab warrior. The hottest cities in Iraq are al Basrah al Qadimah. Erbil city is named as the ‘Arab Tourism capital’. Its Erbil Citadel is a world heritage site. The city Abu Ghurayh was created in 1944 by the Iraqi Government. As Sulaymaniyah was founded in 1784 by Kurdiah prince Ibrahim pasha Baban. In memory of thousands of Iraqi soldiers killed in Iran-Iraq was the Martyr’s Monument was constructed. Two New Year’s Day are celebrated in Iraq. The first is Muharram on the first month of the Muslim calendar and the second is New Year eve on 31st of the Gregorian calendar. The national dish of Iraq is masgouf impaled fish. The national cookie is Kleicha which means circle or wheel. Iraq became independent from Britain in 1932, it was under British rule for 17 years. In 2005, the Iraqi voted in the first democratic elections. The nickname of Iraq is ‘Cradle of civilization’. The national bird of Iraq is the Chucker partridge. Alibaba and the forty thieves is a famous children’s story written about 1000years ago in Iraq. The Iraqi desert is home to dangerous saw scale viper and the deadliest scorpion. The world’s first written story ‘The epic of Gilgamest’ lets the adventures of legendry king who fought to preserve the ancient Iraqi city. Iraq is one of the top date produces in the world. The cuneiform writing the oldest system of writing developed in Iraq around 3200 B.C. People of Iraq are popular in keeping bees which has been for about 5000 years. Honey is am important source of income for Iraqis.
Student Visa Application Process
Embassy of India Bagdad issues the student visa. It takes about 10-15 working days. Applications can be filled online and send it to the embassy. The applications are to be completely filled and signed it in ink under the photographs. Recent color photographs (2inches x2inches) to be submitted. The applicant should have original passport with 2 blank pages and six months validity. A profile page, confirmed returns tickets and a copy of proof to show the availability of funds or the bank statements.
All Iraqis speak and understand Arabic a Semitic language which was introduced by Arab invaders. The language has three different forms classical, modern standard and spoken Kurdish is the official language of Kurdistan which distinguishes Kurds and from Iraqis. The Iraqi flag consists of three colors, with horizontal sections, starting with red on top, white and black. The flag resembles the other Arab countries flags and show Iraqi faith in Allah and Arab unity. The traditional food of Iraq includes rice with soup or sauce, along with lamb and vegetables. In rural areas families eat together out of a common bowl. To celebrate holidays and special occasions it is traditional for Iraqis to sacrifice a lamb or a goat. The most popular sport is soccer; the Iraqi people also enjoy weight lifting, horse racing and boxing. Due to long Iran-Iraq wars, many women were required to study and work in positions of me. Many women work as teachers, physicians, dentists, factory workers, doctors, and civil servants. Iraq was the first Arab country to elect women to a parliamentary position. In Islam, the state religion, women are not given scope to hold any roles of leadership. They cannot attend prayers in mosques. Due to Islamic influence women do not enjoy the same rights as the men. Marriages in Iraq are traditionally arranged, in larger cities Iraqis choose their won spouses. Iraq families are large and they have a close knit family relationships most families live in one house.
The dancing style in Iraq hacha’s is similar to belly dancing. The traditional music of Iraq is maqam based on Arabic poetry. It is influenced by ancient Arabic kings and Persians. The music is slow and heart wrenching. It’s not advised to praise another person’s possessions in Iraq.
The artistic form of expression and thoughts are banned in Iraq, no independent writings are published or distributed. The artists are unable to express themselves freely their views. The Islamic art plays an important role in the ceramics; carpets are famous in Islamic fashions designs. Music festivals are encouraged, Babylon International music and arts festivals are held and people from different parts of the world attend the orchestras and performances. Funerals are simple ceremonies; dead people are buried on the same day wrapped in a white cloth and place in a plain box.
Islam is the religion practiced and recognized in Iraq. There are two forms of Muslims the Shias and the Sunnis. The five pillars of Islam includes the praise of Allah as the only God, pray five times a day, alms giving, fasting and pilgrimage to Mecca. Muslims pray every Friday at eh mosque for afternoon prayers. The Ramdan month requires all Muslims for a period of fasting and abstains from food and drink. Respect is given to elderly and women with children. A man inherits twice as much as woman based on Islamic rule. The women eat in different area and serve the men. Couples live with husband’s extended family or as a nuclear family. Most women wear a scarf or head shawl.